“We are and have been awoken in the past as to who we are and who we were as the souls of the past who read and edit our own histories, at times apply our past to current coats of arms and as self determined angelic race – we are drawn toward the study of History by Institutions of Historical studies ordained by the Holy Spirit.” JC Angelcraft
everything begins at JC Angelcraft ….everything begins with Jesus Christ …http://jcangelcraft.wordpress.com/
http://www.ed.gov/ and www2.ed.gov are a poorly defined URL’s and are unsafe websites meaning they carry news that they should not. Make sure to Call the White House for information on The Department and Ministry of Education for the United States of America. All education is divine and a ministry unto itself.
The National Gallery Digital Collection -Philip VI in French: Philippe VI – 1293 – 22 August 1350 called the Fortunate and of Valois was the first King of France from the House of Valois. Reigned 1328-1350
National Gallery Digital Collection – Coat of Arms of Philip VI the Fortunate the King of France House of Valois
Looking at Self Determination in British French History – a Biography of Joan of Arch by the New Department and Ministry of Education. Today Filia Dei Son Altesse Royale Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi Raineer 1st Queen Wren is the reincarnation of the Angelic soul Joan of Arc born again who died for France after leading them to many victories then betrayed by English and French Nobles and Clergy the fallen Angels after holding the Church in such High Esteem she returns to France as its Queen. Later She was made a Saint by the Holy Spirit through the Catholic Church recognizing the sin committed against her in the early 1900s..
Her Royal Highness -Son Altesse Royale Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi Raineer 1st will be Hosting the French Olympic Team in France as all the New Kings and Queens of the Countries of this World once the games are over.
reference A Body of Work 2002 – 2014 Allen Williamson http://joan-of-arc.org/joanofarc_biography.html
History in the Making Demarcates the Return of Saint Joan of Arc Her Royal Highness -Son Altesse Royale Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi Raineer 1st to sit in the Throne of France
01. Our Angelic History and Wars at France who knows where these angels are today? … and to keep it Short we know Joan of Arc is back in Europe and the Grand Daughter of Grace Kelly and King Rainier Her Royal Highness Caroline, Princess of Hanover is her Mother. Today she is the Queen of France Her Royal Highness -Son Altesse Royale Charlotte Marie Pomeline Casiraghi Raineer 1st is the reincarnation of Joan of Arc who formally was 8th in line to the Throne of Monaco with 7 Brothers ahead of her.
Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Nom de Plume JC Angelcraft the son of the Holy Spirit Nom Divin – JV Agnvs Dei Verbm Dei Filvs Dei Prince Jose Maria Chavira – Adagio 1st – Aga Khan V – Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira MS Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum Primogenitvs Filvs Dei Hominis Spiritvs Nome de Plume JC Angelcraft
02. Saint Joan of Arc was born on January 6th 1412 to Jacques d’Arc and his wife Isabelle in the little village of Domremy, within the Barrois region an area now that is a part of “Lorraine Valley” on the border of eastern France.
03. The religious and political ambitions of men of power in France during the 100 years war would set the stage for Saint Joan’s later life and the circumstances surrounding her death. The Hundred Years’ War is the modern term for a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois
Art Appreciation: US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- Georges de La Tour 1593-1652 La Madeleine à la veilleuse, vers 1640-1645,
04. At the time of the birth of Saint Joan of Arc a truce of peace was in effect between France and England.
05. And thus Saint Joan of Arc was born in peace and born to make peace.
06. Later an internal war erupted breaking the peace between two factions of the French Royal family which would make it easier for the English/French King to re-invade France.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- 1592–1656 La Sagrada Samilia Maria Jose y Jesucristo como un niño
07. The English found a way to cause and create conflict among between two Great French Armies and then defeated the Army of Orleans in 1415 three years after Saint Joan of Arc was born.
08. The “Orleanists.” The army from Orleans was a great French Army..
09. The Army ar Orleans was led by Count Bernard VII of Armagnac and Duke Charles of Orleans, whom Joan would later say was greatly beloved by God.
Art Appeciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- 1643-1706 Oleo Sobre Lienzo – Nina con una Vela
10. The peace broken between divided them from their allies the Army of Burgandy who togther made a very formidable French Force.
11. The Orleans Army of Count Bernard VII of Armagnac were now the enemies of Duke Charles of Orleans for were called the “Burgundians” the French Army from Burgandy.
12. On field of battle, The Burgundy Army was led by Duke John the-Fearless of Burgundy.
The National Gallery Digital Collection -oil on Canvass – Jan van Eyck (circa 1390–1441) – John the Fearless (French: Jean sans Peur, Dutch: Jan zonder Vrees), also known as John of Valois and John I Duke of Burgundy born 28 May 1371 – died 10 September 1419) Duke of Burgundy 1404 to 1419. Valois Dynasty
The National Gallery Digital Collection -Coat of Arms of_the Duke of Burgundy 1404-1430 Valoise Dynasty
13 After a long lapse of time and many battles in between – the forces of his son, Philip III the betrayer from the Army of Burgandy captured Saint Joan and hand her over to the English
14..Pierre Cauchon was clergyman and English advisor loyal to the English and the Burgandy Army helped to arrange the betrayal of Saint Joan of Arc and assure her conviction as a crazy woman who claimed to talk to God while French Forces to Victory after Victory.
15. Much later Saint Joan of Arc’s innocence and sympathies toward the Church made her capture easier than most people thought.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- Gerrit van Honthorst Jesucristo Acusado ante Caepus
16. While the English contiued to keep France at war with itself – French Royal diplomats failed to extend the truce with England who secretly hoped both armies would destroy themselves.
17. When Saint Joan of Arc was only three years old, the English French King Henry V, cited his family’s old claim to the French throne and promptly invaded France in August of 1415 and caused the surrender of The French Army of Orleans at the battle of Agincourt on October 25th.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters– Godfried Schalcken 1643-1706 Oleo Sobre Lienzo – Guillermo III Englatera
The English returned in 1417.
18. Slowly then English Armies began defeating French forces and setting their banners and their tents in the soil of northern France.
19. Their presence so vast in 1420 a new Burgundian Duke, Philip III, agreed to recognize Henry V of English and French Ancestery as the legal heir to the French throne.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- Oleo Sobre Lienzo Gerrit Dou -1613-1675 – Pintor Dutch – Astronomo 1650
20. Burgundian Duke, Philip III rejected the rival claim of the man whom Saint Joan of Arc would consider the rightful successor a soul named Charles of Ponthieu.
Art Appreciation – The National Gallery Digital Collection -Charles of Ponthieu – Charles VII of France by Jean Fouquet 1445-1450 The Valois Dynasty
21. Charles of Ponthieu would later be known as Charles VII.
22. Charles of Ponthieu – Charles VII was thought to be the last blood heir of the Valois dynasty the French Family that had ruled France since 1328. As things go when the family fell from power for whatever reason the surviving members were adopted into other families or what was left of the familyand all extended relatives changed their names, but the entire Valoi genetic line was never exterminated by white supremcist terms but so closely vield their family thay History lost track of them.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – Illumination Technique Euromasters – Duché de Lorraine France Georges de La Tour 1593 –1652- Santa Irene detallen Canvas – Illumination Technique Euromasters – Duché de Lorraine France Georges de La Tour 1593 –1652- Santa Irene detalle
23. Saint Joan of Arc indicated that it was around 1424, when she was twelve, that she began to experience visions of God which she described as both verbal communication as well as visible figures of saints and angels which she could see and touch.
24. Her own testimony as well as a Royal document say that on at least two occasions specific other persons could see the same figures.
St. Catherine of Alexandria lived around 4th century and was martyred at around age of 18. She appeared in a Theophany to St. Joan of Arc
25. Saint Joan of Arc identified these visions as St. Catherine [of Alexandria Egypt], St. Margaret [of Antioch Greece], the Archangel Michael, occasionally Gabriel, and large groups of angels on some occasions.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters-Georges de la Tour San Geronemo
26.Various authors have speculated on the significance of these personages. The only one with a definite relevance to the military situation would be the Archangel Michael, who had been chosen in 1422 as one of the patron saints of the French Royal army (with Saint Denis) and had long served as patron of the fortified island of Mont-Saint-Michel, which had withstood an ongoing siege or blockade since 1418 and would successfully resist continued English efforts until the truce of 1444 finally brought a respite.
27 Michelangelo meaning Michael the Archangel the painter, sculpture and artist would later be born again in 1475 to militantly paint the Church and decorate it with art and sculpture the world had never before seen before its time preparing the world for another great final and last Judgment. .
28. The rest of northern France was less successful. Charles gradually lost the allegiance of all the towns north of the Loire River except for Tournai in Flanders and Vaucouleurs, near Domremy.
29. Since Paris had been controlled by the opposite faction since 1418, his court was now located in the city of Bourges in central France, hemmed in by hostile forces on nearly every side: pro-English Brittany to the northwest, English-occupied Normandy to the north, the Burgundian hereditary domains of Flanders, Artois, Burgundy, Franche-Comte, and Charolais to the northeast and east; and the English hereditary domain of Aquitaine to the southwest.
Central France Castles and Wine in the Loire Valley city of Bourges in central France
30. In 1428 the situation became critical as the English gathered troops for a campaign into the Loire River Valley, the northern perimeter of Charles’ dwindling territory. The city of Orleans on the Loire now became the primary focus.
Chambord Chateau in the Loire Valley is beautiful at any angle!
30. It was at this moment that an unexpected turn of events began to unfold. Saint Joan of Arc said that for some time prior to 1428 the saints in her visions had been urging her to “go to France” (in its original feudal sense – the direct Royal domain) and drive out the English and Burgundians, explaining that God supported Charles’ claim to the throne, supported Orleans’ captive overlord Duke Charles of Orleans, and had taken pity on the French population for the suffering they had endured during the war.
Painting of Saint Marina Saint Antioch of France the Vanquisher of Demons the Fallen Sons of God the collective evil of mankind that last plagued this earth during the Mason Holocuast published by the United States of America’s New Department and Ministry of Education
31. Saint Joan of Arc said that during her childhood these visions had merely instructed her to “be good [or pious], to go to church regularly”; but over the next several years they had persistently called for her to go to the local commander at Vaucouleurs to obtain an escort to take her to the Royal Court.
32. She embarked on the latter course in May of 1428, not long before large English reinforcements landed in France for deployment in the Loire Valley. Saint Joan of Arc arranged for a family relative, Durand Lassois, to take her to see Lord Robert de Baudricourt, who had remained loyal to the Armagnacs despite his status as a vassal of the pro-Burgundian Duke of Lorraine. Baudricourt refused to listen to her, and she returned home.
The Departure of Saint Joan of Arc leaving Vaucouleurs by Scherrer
33. Shortly after her return, in July of 1428 Domremy found itself in the path of a Burgundian army led by Lord Antoine de Vergy, forcing the villagers to take refuge in the nearby city of Neufchateau until the troops had passed. Vergy’s army laid siege to Vaucouleurs and induced Baudricourt to pledge neutrality.
Coat of Arms Sir Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, KG HOPE, W. H. St. John, The Stall Plates of the Knights of the Order of the Garter 1348 – 1485
34. A few months later on October 12th, Orleans was placed under siege by an English army led by the Earl of Salisbury. The eyewitness accounts and other 15th century sources say that the situation for Charles was rather hopeless by that stage. His treasury at one point was down to less than “four ecus”; his armies were a motley collection of local contingents and foreign mercenaries; and he himself, according to the surviving accounts, was torn with doubt over the validity of his cause – since his own mother, cooperating with the English, had allegedly declared him illegitimate in order to deny his claim to the throne. Now Orleans, the last major city defending the heart of his territory, was in the grip of an English army.
The Rise of Saint Joan of Arc the Lady Knight and Princess Maiden of France
35. This was the situation facing his government, by that point located in the city of Chinon on the Vienne River, when Saint Joan of Arc the Maiden of Orleans was finally granted Baudricourt’s permission, after her third attempt, to go with an escort to speak with Charles.
Vienne River Chinon, City Theocraacy of France
37. One account says that she convinced Baudricourt by accurately predicting an Armagnac defeat on 12 February 1429 near the village of Rouvray-Saint-Denis several miles north of Orleans. In this latest disaster, an army under the Count of Clermont took heavy losses while unsuccessfully attempting to stop an English supply convoy bringing food to their troops at the siege.
Vigiles de Charles VII fol._53v, Bataille de Rouvray Saint-Denis_(1429) The Batalle at Saint Denis France
38. When Baudricourt received confirmation of the predicted defeat he promptly arranged for an armed escort to bring Joan through enemy territory to Chinon. Following the standard procedure, her escorts dressed her in male clothing, partly as a disguise in case the group was captured (as a woman might be raped if her identity were discovered), and partly because such clothing had numerous cords with which the long boots and trousers could be tied to the tunic, which would offer an added measure of security.
Sainte Jeanne d Arc La Pucelle” (the Maiden or Virgin of Orleans Cathédrale de Leicester Angleterre – Saint Joan of Arch Honored in the Cathedral of Leicasiter in England Glass Window paintings
38b. The eyewitnesses said she always kept this clothing on and securely tied together when encamped with soldiers, for safety and modesty’s sake. La Pucelle” (the maiden or virgin), had promised her saints to keep her virginity “for as long as it pleases God”, and it is by this nickname that she is usually described in the 15th century documents.
38c. After eleven days on the road, Joan of Arc arrived at Chinon around March 4th and was brought into Charles’ presence, after a delay of two days, by Count Louis de Vendome.
38d La Pucelle” (the maiden or virginThere are many eyewitness accounts of this event. Lord Raoul de Gaucourt, a Royal commander and bailiff of Orleans, recalled that ”
…she presented herself before his Royal majesty with great humility and simplicity, an impoverished little shepherd girl, and … said to the King:
“Most illustrious Lord Dauphin [i.e., heir to the throne], I have come and am sent in the name of God to bring aid to yourself and to the kingdom.” Saint Joan of Arc the Lady of Arms and Maiden of Orleans
39. The accounts indicate that she convinced Charles to take her seriously by telling him about a private prayer he had made the previous November 1st during which he had asked God to aid him in his cause if he was the rightful heir to the throne, and to punish himself alone rather than his people if his sins were responsible for their suffering.
Art Appreciation -US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection BelgiuPetrus Van Schendel 1806-1870 Belgica – Mercado de las Velas no. 28
40. She is said to have related the details of this prayer and assured him that he was the legitimate claimant to the throne. “After hearing her”, remembered one eyewitness, “the King appeared radiant”.
Historic centre of Poitiers with Church of Saint-Radegund, Cathedral of Saint-Pierre and Palace of Justice in the background published by the New Department and Ministry of Education The Theocracy and Monarchy of the United States of America
41. However, Charles first wanted her to be examined by a group of theologians in order to test her orthodoxy, and for that purpose she was sent to the city of Poitiers about thirty miles to the south, where pro-Armagnac clergy from the University of Paris had fled after Paris and its university came under English control a decade earlier.
Blason de Armes de l Universite de Paris.
42. They questioned her for three weeks before granting approval [click here to see the official text of their conclusions]. A letter written by a Venetian named Pancrazio Giustiniani comments that her ability to hold her own against the learned theologians earned her a reputation as “another Saint Catherine come down to earth”, and this reputation began to spread.
Novena to Saint Catherine of Alexandria at Prayer about 1567
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (Italian (Venetian),
43. While still at Poitiers Joan told a clergyman named Jean Erault to record an ultimatum to the English commanders at Orleans around March 22 letters she dictated to scribes during the course of her military campaigns.
Historic centre of Poitiers with Church of Saint-Radegund, Cathedral of Saint-Pierre and Palace of Justice in the background. Enjoy Clips from the movie a Knights Tale Historical Fiction featuring King Edward the Black Prince of Wales who never met an army he could not defeat.
Below King Edward – The Black Prince of Wales oil on Canvass by Benjamin Burnell, 1820. refrence the Hundred Years War Battle of Poitiers for more information see http://www.britishbattles.com/one-hundred-years-war/battle-of-poitiers/ Date of the Battle of Poitiers: 19th September 1356 before the rebirth of Saint Joan of Arc who by Heavens Grace could have been living happy and peacefully Far away from the wars happening around the World at this very time ….JC Angelcraft …you must be born again
The Canterbury Tales a Knights Tale and More by Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400) Free PDF Book published by the New Department and Ministry of Educaton of the United States of America a Voting Theocracy and a Monarchy
44. This ultimatum begins with the “Jesus-Mary” slogan which would become her trademark, borrowed from the clergy known as “mendicants” – Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians – who made up a large portion of the priests in her army. She then goes on to inform the English that the “King of Heaven, Son of Saint Mary” [i.e., Jesus Christ] supports Charles VII’s claim to the throne, and repeatedly advises the English to “go away [back] to England” (“allez-vous-en en Angleterre”) or she will “drive you out of France” (“bouter vous hors de France”). In place of a reply, the English would detain the two men who delivered the message. She would find that more forceful methods would be needed to convince the English to pull their troops out of the Loire Valley.
Le Chateau of Villandry Loire Valley La théocratie de France visit the Theocracy of France http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/france/the-loire-valley
45. After providing her with a suit of armor “made exactly for her body” (in the words of one eyewitness), and a banner with a picture of “Our Savior” holding the world “with two angels at the sides”, on a white background covered with gold fleurs-de-lis, they brought her to the army at Blois, about 35 miles southwest of Orleans. It was here that she began to reform the troops by expelling the prostitutes from the camp (sometimes at sword point, according to several eyewitnesses) and requiring the soldiers to go to church and confession, give up swearing, and refrain from looting or harassing the civilian population.
Art Appreciation – US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – Holy Family Collection-Joan of Arc Oil on Canvass published by the New United States Department of Education and Ministry
46. One astonished eyewitness reported that she succeeded in forcing a mercenary commander named Lord Etienne de Vignolles, known as “La Hire” (meaning “anger” or “ire”, a reflection of his inability to maintain an aristocratic calm) to confess his sins to a priest.
47. Her arrival had another valuable effect on the army: men who would otherwise have refused to serve Charles’ defeated cause now began to volunteer for the campaign, as word that a saint was now at the head of the army began to change minds.
Statue of Joan of Arc, Place du Martroi published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016
48. The army moved out from Blois around April 25th and arrived in stages at the besieged city between April 29th and May 4th. A small force had come out to meet them at Checy, five miles upriver from Orleans; but as there weren’t enough barges to transport the entire body of troops across the river, Joan of Arc herself and a small group of soldiers were escorted into the city by Lord Jean d’Orleans (better known by his later title, Count of Dunois), the man in charge of the city’s defense due to his status as the half-brother of the Duke of Orleans.
Lord Jean d’Orleans oil on canvas published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016
49. The rest of the army would arrive later by a different route, its numbers greatly reduced by discouraged men who decided to leave without the Maiden there to encourage them.
Saint Lupus of Sens Born in Orleans France shown here giving alms—from a 14th-century manuscript Canteburry Tales Died 623
50. On May 4th the rest of her troops made it into the city, and a few hours later an assault was launched against an English-held fortified church called Saint Loup, about a mile east of Orleans. The surviving accounts say that the position was carried after Joan rode up with her banner, encouraging the troops up and over the ramparts.
The Church of Saint-Loup de Naud church Circa 7th Century published by the New Department and Ministry of Education The United States of America – Retrieved from http://www.france-voyage.com/tourism/saint-loup-naud-church-1503.htm
51. The English casualties totaled 114 dead and 40 captured. Her role in this engagement would become typical: sources from both factions quote her as saying that she preferred to carry her banner into battle (rather than a weapon, as is sometimes supposed), since, as she explained, she didn’t want to harm anyone; and there are many eyewitness accounts which repeatedly describe her encouraging the troops to greater efforts by placing herself in the same danger that they themselves faced.
Joan of Arc on Horseback by William Etty oil on canvas published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016 – http://www.maidofheaven.com/
52. On the following day she sent her final ultimatum to the English commanders at Orleans, this time having an archer deliver the note with an arrow rather than risk losing another messenger.
Published by the New Department and Ministry of Educaton of the United States of America a Voting Theocracy and Monarchy retieved from http://coeurs-unis-en-j-m.forumactif.com/t7529p60-une-minute-avec-marie
53. The remaining English positions fell swiftly: on May 6th an attack was made against a fortified monastery called the “Bastille des Augustins”, which controlled the southern approach to a pair of towers called Les Tourelles, at the southern end of Orleans’ bridge. Flanking these to the east was a fortified church called St-Jean-le-Blanc, near which the English had been bombarding the city with one of their largest cannons, called “le Passe-volant”.
Joan of Arc on Horseback oil on canvas published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016 Thomas Doughty retrieved from http://thomasdoughty.com/images/Joan%20Of%20Arc/joan%20of%20arc.png
Department of Education The United States of America – Blason Ville France Saint Jean le Blanc is located in Centre-Val de Loire French for Center-Loire Valley. The Center Loir Valley is one of the 18 regions of France. It straddles the middle Loire Valley in the interior of the country. The administrative capital is Orléans, but the largest city is Tours.
Department and Ministry of Education – The United States of America – Saint-Jean-le-Blanc, Loiret Hôtel de Ville plan your reservations with your local travel agent
54. The French troops were sent over a pontoon bridge around the hour of Tierce (9 a.m.), and induced the English to abandon St-Jean-le-Blanc without a fight; the more substantial fortress of Les Augustins was then assaulted, with the saint leading the initial charge alongside La Hire. The fortress was then stormed and overrun with few losses.
US National Gallery Digital Collection – Musée des Augustins de Toulouse – Museum Open to the Public speak to your local travel agency today
55. This placed Les Tourelles within striking range: during the course of the next morning’s assault, Joan herself was wounded by an arrow while helping the soldiers set up a scaling ladder. It seems she stayed behind the area of fighting for most of the day, but returned to the field near dusk in order to encourage the demoralized troops to one final effort which met with success.
56. This proved to be decisive: the English abandoned the siege the next day, and moved their remaining troops off to Meung-sur-Loire and other positions along the river.
Orleans was the English high-water mark: never again would they come so close to achieving a final victory against Charles, who would soon be anointed as King Charles VII.
Department and Ministry of Education – Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans by Jules Eugène Lenepveu, painted 1886–1890
Department and Ministry of Education The United States of America- Blason – non-officiel attendu que cette région ne revendique aucun blason – de la région de Bretagne – D’hermine. Coat of Arms of The Duchy of Brittney Carries symbols that bare a strong resemblance to the a Stella of King Sargon. The Interpretation here is Order and Structure in a very large Military group all battalions and small fighting forces are in aggreement. See the Historical Stella of King Sargon of Akkad. Below
Department and Ministry of Education The United States of America – Ancient Symbols Akkadian Empire 2250 BC. We are and have been awoken in the past as to who we are and who we were as the souls of the past who read and edit our own histories, at times apply our past to current coats of arms and as self determined angelic race – we are drawn toward the study of History by Institutions of Historical studies ordained by the Holy Spirit. JC Angelcraft
Department and Ministry of Education The United States of America Château de Chambord a Loire Valley Castles Foundation 1519
57. The unexpected lifting of the siege led to the support of a number of prominent figures. Duke Jean V of Brittany rejected his previous alliance with the English and promised to send troops to Charles’ aid. The Archbishop of Embrun wrote a treatise [June 1429] declaring Joan to be divinely inspired, and advised Charles to consult with her on matters concerning the war.
58. The joy felt by Charles himself when he and Joan met again at Loches on the 11th was neatly summed up in an account by Eberhardt von Windecken: “… Then the young girl bowed her head before the King as much as she could, and the King immediately had her raise it again; and one would have thought that he would have kissed her from the joy that he experienced.”
59. On the other side, the Duke of Bedford (the chief English commander in France) reacted by calling up as many troops as possible from English-occupied territory; the Duke of Burgundy made plans to take a more active role in helping his allies in the field, although as usual he demanded a modest sum (250,000 livres) to help offset his costs.
60. After the Dauphin’s joyful reunion with the saint, she convinced him to take an army north to Reims to be crowned, as custom required. This was no simple task, since Reims at that time lay deep within enemy-held territory; in order to open a way for a northward campaign, the Royal army first set about the job of clearing out the remaining English positions in the Loire Valley, with the Duke of Alencon being given command of the venture.
61. The army’s first target was Jargeau, ten miles to the southeast of Orleans. At least 3,600 armored troops, plus an unknown number of lightly-armed ‘commons’, were present for duty. The town was reached on June 11th; the main assault came the next day after an artillery bombardment in which Jargeau’s largest tower was felled by a large cannon from Orleans nicknamed “La Bergere” (“the Shepherdess”), presumably named after the saint herself.
62. The latter’s role was also crucial: carrying her banner up front with the troops, she was hit in the helmet with a stone but immediately got back on her feet and encouraged the soldiers to storm the ramparts by shouting: “Friends, friends, up! Up! Our Lord has condemned the English”. [In the archaic French of the 15th century: “Amys, amys, sus! Sus! Nostre Sire a condempne les Angloys”] The fortifications were taken, and the English were driven back across Jargeau’s bridge. The survivors surrendered.
63. Beaugency was taken on the 17th after the English garrison negotiated an agreement allowing them to withdraw. That evening the English troops at Meung, reinforced by an army under Sir John Fastolf, offered battle to the French but subsequently decided to fall back the next day, riding northward in an effort to make it back to more secure territory.
64. The French pursued (goaded on by Joan, saying in effect that they should use their “good spurs” to chase the enemy). The two armies clashed south of Patay, where a rapid cavalry charge led by La Hire and other nobles of the vanguard overran a unit of 500 English archers who had been set up to delay the French as long as they could.
65. Confusion among the main contingents of the English army completed the rout, and the French cavalry swept their opponents from the field. The English heralds announced their losses as 2,200 men, compared to only three casualties for the French – the reverse of so many other battles during that war.
The March to Reims
66. When Charles met his commanders after this victory, the decision was made to press on northward to Reims. Gathering the army together at Gien on the Loire, both Charles and Joan began sending out letters requesting various cities and dignitaries to send representatives to the coronation.
67. The Royal army finally moved out from Gien on the 29th, after a delay which caused Joan much distress. The Burgundian-held city of Auxerre was reached the next day, and an agreement with the city leaders was worked out after three days of negotiations: the army was allowed to buy food, and Auxerre agreed to pay the same obedience to Charles as Troyes, Chalons, and Reims chose to do.
68. The next stop was Troyes, garrisoned by 500-600 Burgundian troops.
On July 4th, at St. Phal near Troyes, she sent a letter to the citizens of the latter city asking them to declare themselves for Charles, adding that “with the help of King Jesus”, Charles will enter all of the towns within his inheritance regardless of their wishes.
69. Troyes initially ignored the summons. While Charles’ commanders debated their next course of action, Joan of Arc told them to promptly besiege the town, predicting they would gain it in three days “either by love or by force”.
70. Lord Dunois remembered that she then began ordering the placement of the troops, and did it so well that “two or three of the most famous and experienced soldiers” could not have done it better.
80. Troyes surrendered the next day without a fight. The Royal army entered on the 10th; by the 14th it had reached Chalons-sur-Marne to the north, which opened its gates with greater promptitude than Troyes.
81. Reims followed suit after Joan counseled Charles to “advance boldly”; and at last the Dauphin was poised to receive the crown which had been denied him years earlier.
82. During the ceremony Joan of Arc stood near Charles, holding her banner. The memorable words of one 15th century source describes the scene: after Charles was crowned, Joan “wept many tears and said, ‘Noble king, now is accomplished the pleasure of God, who wished me to lift the siege of Orleans, and to bring you to this city of Reims to receive your holy anointing, to show that you are the true king, and the one to whom the kingdom of France should belong.'” It adds: “All those who saw her were moved to great compassion.”
The Siege of Paris
83. On July 17th, the day of the coronation, Joan sent a letter to the Duke of Burgundy asking why he didn’t bother to show up for the coronation and proposing that he and Charles should “make a good firm lasting peace. Pardon each other completely and willingly, as loyal Christians should do; and if it should please you to make war, go against the Saracens.” (The Islamic Saracens, frequently at war with Christendom, were one of her preferred targets for legitimate military action).
84. Although the Duke himself stayed away, his emissaries had arrived in Reims on the day of the coronation and began negotiations which resulted in a 15-day truce being declared – not exactly the “good, firm, lasting peace” that Joan wanted, and in fact such a short truce immediately following in the wake of Charles’ triumph could serve only to give the English and Burgundians time to regroup.
85. Charles followed up this treaty by taking his army on a city-by-city tour of the Ile-de-France, accepting the loyalty of each in turn. Near Crepy-en-Valois, Joan was quoted as saying that she now hoped that God would permit her to return to her family’s home. The army of the Duke of Bedford was nearby, however – Bedford had recently sent off a challenge to Charles VII asking him to meet the English at “some place in the fields, convenient and reasonable” for a showdown.
86. The place turned out to be the village of Montpilloy just southwest of Crepy, where the two armies clashed on August 14th and 15th, with Joan herself going so far as to lead a charge against the English fortified positions to try to draw them out; but only a prolonged series of skirmishes took place, and both armies withdrew on the night of the 15th.
87. The French went back to Crepy, and then proceeded on to Compiegne to the northwest. At the same time negotiations with the Burgundians were getting underway, with the positions of the two parties oddly reversed: while French armies were rapidly advancing, the French delegation was offering sweeping concessions, bargaining as if they were on the losing side.
88. On the 21st a treaty was signed providing for a four-month truce designed to prevent the Royal army from continuing its offensive, coupled with the added provision that several towns should be handed over to the Duke of Burgundy. A peace conference was promised for the spring, although the documents show that the English were preparing to launch an offensive around the same time.
89. Meanwhile, King Charles remained at Compiegne. On the 23rd Joan and the Duke of Alencon left on their own initiative with a body of troops and made their way to the region around Paris, arriving at St-Denis on the 25th and sending out skirmishers “up to the gates of Paris” over the next several days.
90. A brief siege began on September 8th, but Joan was hit in the thigh that day by a crossbow dart while trying to find a place for her troops to cross the city’s inner moat. She was carried back against her will, all the while urging on another assault. No further attack would be forthcoming: on the 9th the army was ordered back to St-Denis, where the King was located by that point; when he learned that the commanders were thinking of crossing back to Paris by a bridge constructed on the orders of the Duke of Alencon, Charles ordered the bridge destroyed. On the 13th the troops began the discouraging march back to the Loire. On September 21st the army, by then back at Gien, was disbanded.
91. The Duke of Alencon’s squire and chronicler, Perceval de Cagny, summed up this event with the terse and bitter statement: “And thus was broken the will of the Maiden and the King’s army.” Like many of those who had served in that army, Cagny tended to feel that the disastrous policies promoted by the Royal counselors – most blamed Georges de la Tremoille in particular – had fatally undermined Joan’s successes.
92. The commanders were dispersed to their own estates or former areas of operations. When the Duke of Alencon, preparing a campaign into Normandy, asked that Joan of Arc be allowed to join him, the Royal court refused.
93. During this period of inactivity, Joan was moved around to various residences of the Royal court, such as at Bourges and Sully-sur-Loire. The next military venture, albeit a fairly small one, was the attack against Saint-Pierre-le-Moutier, which was captured on November 4.
94. Jean d’Aulon, Joan’s squire and bodyguard, remembered that the initial assault was a failure and the soldiers in full retreat, except for Joan herself and a handful of men clustered around her.
95. He rode up to her and told her to fall back with the rest of the army, but she refused, declaring that she had “fifty-thousand” troops with her. Shouting for the army to bring up bundles for filling in the town’s moat, she initiated a new assault which took the objective “without much resistance”, according to the astonished d’Aulon.
96. The next target was the town of La-Charite-sur-Loire. Since the army was undersupported by the Royal court, she sent letters off to nearby cities asking them to donate supplies. Clermont-Ferrand responded by sending two hundredweight of saltpeter, an equal amount of sulfur, and two bundles of arrows.
97. The siege of La Charite was a dismal failure: the weather was chilly by that point in the year; the army had “few men”; the Royal court did little to provide support for the troops (“the King”, according to Cagny, “made no diligence to send her food supplies nor money to maintain her army”). The army withdrew after a month, abandoning their artillery.
98. She spent the rest of the winter at various Royal estates while the English and Burgundians regrouped for a new campaign.
99. The month of March 1430 saw a flurry of letters being sent out by Joan, all of them dictated in the town of Sully-sur-Loire. Two of these, on the 16th and 28th, went to the citizens of Reims, assuring them that she would aid them in the event of a siege.
100. On March 23rd she sent an ultimatum to the Hussites, addressed as “the heretics of Bohemia”, warning that she would lead a crusading army against them unless they “return to the Catholic faith and the original Light”.
103. In late March or early April Joan of Arc finally took the field again with her small group (her brother Pierre, her confessor Friar Jean Pasquerel, her bodyguard Jean d’Aulon, and a few others), escorted by a mercenary unit of about 200 troops led by Bartolomew Baretta of Italy.
104. They headed for Lagny-sur-Marne, where French forces were putting up a fight against the English. It was here, in the midst of war, that she was credited with helping to save an infant: according to her own testimony, she and other virgins of the town were praying in a church on behalf of a dead baby, that it might be revived long enough to baptize it; she said the baby came to life, yawned three times, and was hastily baptized before it died again.
105. Around Easter (April 22nd) she was at Melun where, as she would later say, her saints had revealed to her that she would be captured “before Saint John’s Day” (June 24). She had said at many points that capture and betrayal were her greatest fears.
106. Meanwhile, the Burgundian army was on the move despite all the promises of peace; and on May 6th Charles VII and his counselors finally admitted that the Royal Court had been manipulated by the Duke, “…who has diverted and deceived us by truces and otherwise”, as Charles wrote in a letter on that date.
107. He would now order a damaging series of assaults on Burgundian territory to the east, but in the northeast the Armagnacs were in trouble: the Duke of Burgundy was now there in force. His strategy, based on an elaborate document outlining his plans, called for the bridge at Choisy-au-Bac to be taken, followed by the monastery at Verberie, and then a methodical series of assaults to block all the supply routes into Compiegne, which had refused to submit to him under the terms of the agreement signed the previous year. Choisy-au-Bac was taken on May 16; on the 22nd the Duke laid siege to Compiegne. Joan was unwilling to let this city, which had showed such courage in its defiance, fall unaided: reinforced with 300 – 400 additional troops picked up at Crepy-en-Valois, on the morning of the 23rd at sunrise she and her tiny army slipped into Compiegne.
108. She apparently knew what was coming: according to the later statements of two men who had, as young boys, been among a group of curious children watching Joan pray in one of Compiegne’s churches that morning, she was much troubled in spirit and told the children to “pray for me, for I have been betrayed.”
109. Later that day she was among those leading a sortie against the enemy camp at Margny when her troops were ambushed by Burgundian forces concealed behind a hill called the Mont-de-Clairoix. Having decided to stay with the rearguard during the retreat, she and her soldiers were trapped outside the city and pinned up against the river when the drawbridge was prematurely raised behind them.
110. Burgundian troops swarmed around her, each asking her to surrender. She refused, and was finally pulled off her horse by an enemy archer. A nobleman named Lionel of Wandomme, in the service of John of Luxembourg, made her his captive.
111. A Burgundian chronicler who was present, Enguerrand de Monstrelet, wrote that the Armagnacs were devastated by Joan’s capture, while the English and Burgundians were “overjoyed, more so than if they had taken 500 combatants, for they had never feared or dreaded any other commander… as much as they had always feared this maiden up until that day.”
112. The garrison commander at Compiegne, Guillaume de Flavy, came under immediate suspicion as a traitor, although his guilt was never proved. Since the Royal Court at that time was divided into factions, each of which routinely tried to eliminate any prominent leader who was supported by their rivals, it would be likely that a small group within the Court may have betrayed her.
113. The evidence indicates that Charles VII probably was not among the guilty, however, nor did he abandon her, as is so often claimed: according to the archives of the Morosini, who were in contact with the Royal Court, Charles VII tried to force the Burgundians to return Joan in exchange for the usual ransom, and threatened to treat Burgundian prisoners according to whatever standard was adopted in Joan’s case.
114. The pro-Anglo-Burgundian University of Paris, which later helped arrange her conviction, sent an alarmed letter to John of Luxembourg reporting that the Armagnacs were “doing everything in their power” to try to get her back. Dunois and La Hire would lead four campaigns during that winter and the following spring which seem to have been designed to rescue her by military means.
These attempts failed, and the Burgundians refused to ransom her.
115. After four months spent as a prisoner in the chateau of Beaurevoir, Joan was transferred to the English in exchange for 10,000 livres, an arrangement similar to the standard practice in other cases of prisoner transfers between members of the same side, such as when Henry V had paid his nobles for transferring their prisoners to him after the battle of Agincourt. Pierre Cauchon, a longtime supporter of the Anglo-Burgundian faction, was given the job of procuring her and setting up a trial. He had been given many such tasks in the past: a letter from Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy, dated 26 July 1415, authorized Cauchon to bribe Church officials at the Council of Constance in order to influence the Council’s ruling concerning a murder which the Duke had ordered.
116. They now needed someone who was willing to engineer a murder under the guise of an Inquisitorial trial, and Cauchon again got the job.
117- English government documents record in great detail the payments made to cover the costs of obtaining Joan and rewarding the various judges and assessors who took part in her trial [click here to see some of these financial accounts], and we know that the clergy who served at the trial were drawn from their supporters.
118. Some of these men later admitted that the English conducted the proceedings for the purposes of revenge rather than out of any genuine belief that she was a heretic. [click here to see some of this testimony]
119. Joan was held at the fortress of Crotoy before being brought to Rouen, the seat of the English occupation government. Although Inquisitorial procedure required suspects to be held in a Church-run prison, and female prisoners to be guarded by nuns rather than male guards (for obvious reasons), Joan was held in a secular military prison with English soldiers as guards.
120. According to several eyewitness accounts, she complained that these men tried to rape her on a number of occasions, for which reason she clung to her soldiers’ clothing and kept the hosen, hip-boots and tunic “firmly laced and tied together” with dozens of cords – her only means of protecting herself against rape, since a dress didn’t offer any such protection. The tribunal eventually decided to use this against her by charging that it violated the prohibition against cross-dressing, a charge which intentionally ignored the exemption allowed in such cases of necessity by medieval doctrinal sources such as the “Summa Theologica” and “Scivias”.
121. The eyewitnesses said that Joan pleaded with Cauchon to transfer her to a Church prison with women to guard her, in which case she could safely wear a dress; but this was never allowed.
122. The trial included a series of hearings from February 21st through the end of March 1431. Normally, Inquisitorial tribunals were supposed to hear witness testimony against the accused and base any verdict upon such testimony, but in this case the only witness called was the accused herself.
123. The trial assessors, as a number of them later admitted, therefore resorted to trying to manipulate her into saying something that might be used against her. There were other profound deviations from lawful procedure.
124. As many historians have pointed out, the theological arguments put forward by Cauchon and his associates are mostly a set of subtle half-truths, not only on the “cross-dressing” charge but also concerning issues such as the authority of the tribunal: standard Inquisitorial procedure required such tribunals to be overseen by non-partisan judges, otherwise the trial could be automatically rendered null and void. Similarly, the accused was allowed to appeal to the Pope.
125. The eyewitnesses said Joan repeatedly asked for both of these rules to be honored, but this was never granted. They stated that she had submitted to the authority of both the Papacy and the Council of Basel, but the latter was left out of the transcript on Cauchon’s orders and the former was entered in a form which distorted her statements on the matter.
126. The dispute between Joan and her judges therefore largely revolved around the legitimacy of the tribunal as an impartial jury of the Church Universal, and medieval ecclesiastic law is on her side. [click here for more information about this issue].
127. Early in the trial an attempt was made to link her to witchcraft by claiming her banner had been endowed with magical powers, that she allegedly poured wax on the heads of small children, and other accusations of this sort, but these charges were dropped before the final articles of accusation were drawn up on April 5th. In one of the more curious bids to discredit her, Cauchon objected to her use of the “Jesus-Mary” slogan which, somewhat paradoxically, was used by the Dominicans who largely ran the Inquisitorial courts. Her saints were dismissed as “demons”, despite the transcript’s own description that they had counseled her to “go regularly to Church” and maintain her virginity.
128. In the end, Cauchon would convict her on the cross-dressing charge, which he utilized in a manner which gives an indication of his character. According to several eyewitnesses – the trial bailiff Jean Massieu, the chief notary Guillaume Manchon, the assessors Friar Martin Ladvenu and Friar Isambart de la Pierre, and the Rouen citizen Pierre Cusquel – after Joan had finally consented to wear a dress, her guards immediately increased their attempts to rape her, joined by “a great English lord” who tried to do the same.
129. Her guards finally took away her dress entirely and threw her the old male clothing which she was forbidden to wear, sparking a bitter argument between Joan and the guards that “went on until noon”, according to the bailiff. She had no choice but to put on the clothing left to her, after which Cauchon promptly pronounced her a “relapsed heretic” and condemned her to death. Several eyewitnesses remembered that Cauchon came out of the prison and exclaimed to the Earl of Warwick and other English commanders waiting outside: “Farewell, be of good cheer, it is done!”, implying that he had orchestrated the trap that the guards had set for her.
130. The scene of her execution is vividly described by a number of those who were present that day. She listened calmly to the sermon read to her, but then broke down weeping during her own address, in which she forgave her accusers for what they were doing and asked them to pray for her.
131. The accounts say that most of the judges and assessors themselves, and a few of the English soldiers and officials, were openly sobbing by the end of it. But a few of the English soldiers were becoming impatient, and one sarcastically shouted to the bailiff Jean Massieu, “What, priest, are you going to make us wait here until dinner?” The executioner was ordered to “do your duty”.
133, They tied her to a tall pillar well above the crowd. She asked for a cross, which one sympathetic English soldier tried to provide by making a small one out of wood. A crucifix was brought from the nearby church and Friar Martin Ladvenu held it up in front of her until the flames rose. Several eyewitnesses recalled that she repeatedly screamed “…in a loud voice the holy name of Jesus, and implored and invoked without ceasing the aid of the saints of Paradise”. Then her head drooped, and it was over.
134. Jean Tressard, Secretary to the King of England, was seen returning from the execution exclaiming in great agitation, “We are all ruined, for a good and holy person was burned.” The Cardinal of England himself and the Bishop of Therouanne, brother of the same John of Luxembourg whose troops had captured Joan, were said to have wept bitterly.
144. The executioner, Geoffroy Therage, confessed to Martin Ladvenu and Isambart de la Pierre afterwards, saying that “…he had a great fear of being damned, [as] he had burned a saint.” The worried English authorities tried to put a stop to any further talk of this sort by punishing those few who were willing to publicly speak out in her favor: the legal records show a number of prosecutions during the following days.
145. It would not be until the English were finally driven from Rouen in November of 1449, near the end of the war, that the slow process of appealing the case would be initiated. This process resulted in a posthumous acquittal by an Inquisitor named Jean Brehal, who had paradoxically been a member of an English-run institution during the war. Brehal nevertheless ruled that she had been convicted illegally and without basis by a corrupt court operating in a spirit of “…manifest malice against the Roman Catholic Church, and indeed heresy”.
146- The Inquisitor and other theologians consulted for the appeal therefore denounced Cauchon and the other judges and described Joan as a martyr, thereby paving the way for her eventual beatification in 1909 and canonization as a saint in 1920, by which time even English writers and clergy no longer showed the opposition that their predecessors had.
147. During World War I, in the midst of the canonization process and a period of French-English detente, Allied soldiers would pay tribute to the heroine by invoking her name on battlefields not far from her own.
A modern language association (MLA)
- A Body of Work 2002 – 2014 Allen Williamson http://joan-of-arc.org/joanofarc_biography.html
- Looking at Self Determination in British French History – a Biography of Joan of Arch by the New Department and Ministry of Education – Published 27th of August 2016 Edited by His Royal Highnes Jose Maria Chavira MS. Adagio 1st
- The Battle of Poitiers on 19th September 1356 in the Hundred Years Photograph http://www.britishbattles.com/one-hundred-years-war/battle-of-poitiers/
- Saint Catherine of Alexandria at Prayer about 1567
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (Italian (Venetian), about 1488–1576) was retrieved (August 28, 2016 @ 17:02:00)
- Le Chateau of Villandry Loire Valley La théocratie de France visit the Theocracy of France retrieved (August 28, 2016 @ 17:34:00) http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/france/the-loire-valley
- US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – Holy Family Collection-Joan of Arc Oil on Canvass published by the New United States Department of Education and Ministry
- King Edward – The Black Prince of Wales oil on Canvass by Benjamin Burnell 1820 refrence the Hundred Years War Battle of Poitiers – published by The United States of America’s New Deparment and Ministry of Education
- US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – Holy Family Collection-Joan of Arc Oil on Canvass published by the New United States Department of Education and Ministry
- Statue of Joan of Arc, Place du Martroi published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016
- Saint Marina Saint Antioch of France the Vanquisher of Demons the Fallen Sons of God the collective evil of mankind that last plagued this earth during the Mason Holocuast published by the United States of America’s New Department and Ministry of Education
- Lord Jean d’Orleans oil on canvas published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016 ,
- The Church of Saint-Loup de Naud church Circa 7th Century published by the New Department and Ministry of Education The United States of America – Retrieved from http://www.france-voyage.com/tourism/saint-loup-naud-church-1503.htm ,
- Joan of Arc on Horseback by William Etty oil on canvas published by the New Department and Minsitry of Education The United States of America August 28th 2016 – http://www.maidofheaven.com/
- Published by the New Department and Ministry of Educaton of the United States of America a Voting Theocracy and Monarchy retieved from http://coeurs-unis-en-j-m.forumactif.com/t7529p60-une-minute-avec-marie
- Historic centre of Poitiers with Church of Saint-Radegund, Cathedral of Saint-Pierre and Palace of Justice in the background published by the New Department and Ministry of Education The Theocracy and Monarchy of the United States of America
- Art Appreciation: US National Gallery Digital Collection – Oil on Canvas – The Candle and Night Market Art Collection Belgium and Euromasters- Georges de La Tour 1593-1652 La Madeleine à la veilleuse, vers 1640-1645,