01. Ave Verum Corpus – a body of evidence mounting every day as usual, a body of justice and heartfelt prayer and worship.
02. If this was not enough for them – the worshippers of dead presidents today before their arrests managed to publish at the White House an act of Congress that occured in 1991 giiving the glory and the honor to one dead unduocument worker named Baruch Hussein (Obama) a convicted Serial Killer who died in 2011-2012 Tribunals with other Masons who were citizens of the countried fo they which they were head of.
- Hearing on H.R. 3850, the Fair Chance Act : hearing – Chemeketa …link.ccrls.org/portal/Hearing-on-H.R.-3850-the-Fair–Chance–Act-/fj592eHQrj0/
- Hearing on H.R. 3850, the Fair Chance Act : hearing. (work) · Publication · 1990 · Extent: iii, 191 p. Note. “January 24, 1990.” 101st Congress, 2nd session.
11. Hearing on H.R. 3850, the Fair Chance Act : hearing. (work) · Publication · 1990 · Extent: iii, 191 p. Note. “January 24, 1990.” 101st Congress, 2nd session.
12. Enforcement Guidance on the Consideration of Arrest and Conviction https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/guidance/arrest_conviction.cfm In the legislative history of the 1991 Civil Rights Act, Congress referred to …. In the course of its investigation, the school provides Andrew a chance to …… State fair employment practices agencies have information about applicable state law.
Deaths in the Cook County Jail: 10-Year Report, 1995–2004
The aims of this study were to describe causes of death during the 10-year period between 1995 and 2004 in a large urban jail in Chicago; to compare disease specific mortality rates between the jail population and the general population; to explore demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death; and to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death. A total of 178 deaths occurring in the jail over a 10-year period (1995–2004) were reviewed. Age-adjusted disease-specific mortality rates were computed for the jail population and compared with the rates in the US general population. Cause of death, demographic variables, and incarceration related factors were retrieved from multiple computerized databases. Descriptive analyses were performed to examine demographic and incarceration-related patterns by cause of death and gender. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death in the jail population, followed by cerebrovascular disease and suicide. Mortality rates for heart diseases, infectious/inflammatory conditions and suicide were higher for jail inmates than the general population. Black inmates accounted for the majority of deaths due to illnesses and homicide, and a much higher proportion of white and Hispanic inmates were involved in suicide deaths. Deaths due to drug overdose or withdrawal were disproportionately higher among female inmates compared with male inmates. Consistent review of mortality rates and causes of deaths in jail can be a useful tool to better understand health issues and needs of jail inmates. Surveillance of acute and chronic illnesses and strategic reengineering of jail health care is a key to quality improvement for incarcerated populations for whom the jail system becomes their primary care provider.
Mortality data can provide valuable information on health issues that inmates bring to a jail setting. By comparing mortality rates between the jail population and the general population, inmates’ unique needs and health risks can be highlighted. A disproportionately high number of inmates present multiple health issues due to their social, economic, environmental, and behavioral risk factors. Substance abuse, infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and mental/psychological problems are known to be prevalent in this population.1–3 When examining disease-specific mortality rates, earlier studies showed that HIV/AIDS was the most frequent cause of death in prisons, and many other studies reported that suicide rates in incarcerated populations were higher than the rates in the general population, the rate in jails being three times higher than the rate in prisons.4 However, more recently, deaths due to HIV infection have decreased both in inmate populations as well as in the general population. It has been reported that suicide and homicide rates in local jails and state prisons also have declined over the last 20 years.4 As such, it appears timely to reevaluate the changing mortality profile in this population.
Health care in jails has primarily focused on addressing prevention of the potential transmission of infectious diseases and acute health issues. The public health implications of infectious diseases among inmates have long been recognized. Often individuals incarcerated in jails require immediate medical attention for conditions such as injuries, drug intoxication or withdrawal. However, many individuals with chronic illness are also incarcerated. These individuals may be incarcerated without their medications, and depending on the institution, evaluation by a physician and reinstitution of medication can take several days. Chronic conditions are often treated with an episodic urgent care approach that does not result in optimal care for this growing number of inmates with chronic health problems. Chronic health needs of inmates have not been extensively explored. Yet, chronic conditions among inmates are coming more into focus because incarcerated populations are aging.5 The National Commission on Correctional Health Care (NCCHC)6estimated rates of chronic diseases in incarcerated populations because there are no reported prevalence rates of chronic illness for incarcerated populations.
The purpose of this study is to better understand patterns of deaths among inmates in a large urban jail and to explore resulting policy implications in planning jail health services. Specific aims of the study are (1) to describe causes of death during the 10-year study period between 1995 and 2004 in the Cook County Department of Corrections (CCDOC), Cermak Health Services (CHS), (2) to examine the disease specific mortality rates in this jail population and to compare these with the rates in the US general population, (3) to compare demographic and incarceration characteristics of the inmates who died in the jail by cause of death, and (4) to examine gender difference in demographic characteristics, incarceration patterns, and causes of death.
According to definitions of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS),7 jails hold inmates before or after adjudication, those who are sentenced usually less than one year, those with pending allegation, trial, conviction, or sentencing, or those who are returning to custody following violation of probation or parole. Prisons on the other hand confine inmates who have been those who have been convicted of a felony offense and sentenced to one year or more.
Many previous mortality studies in correctional settings often focused on suicide deaths, partly because suicide has been one of the most frequent causes of death in the incarcerated populations. Salive and colleagues8 reviewed male deaths between 1979 and 1987 in a prison in Maryland, and concluded that mortality rates due to suicide in the prison population were higher than rates in the general population, although the all-cause mortality rate for the prison population was lower than the rate for the general population. A study of 128 deaths between 1971 and 1976 in New York prisons also found that external causes accounted for the majority of deaths, with suicide being the leading cause of death.9 This high rate of suicide deaths in incarcerated populations was observed in overseas studies.10–14 For example, suicide was the most common cause of death in a Finnish prison.15
Inmates who committed suicide tended to be younger. Salive and colleagues16 reported that the relative risk of committing suicide among inmates who were between the ages of 25 and 34 was significantly higher than any other age group. In NY facilities, 21% of inmate suicide deaths fell between the ages of 25 and 29, and 26% were between the ages of 30 and 34.17 In a Finnish study, inmates between the ages of 21 and 29 accounted for 49.5% of all suicide deaths.15 In an Australian study, the majority of suicide deaths were between the ages of 20 and 24.18 A more recent report, however, found that in 2002, the youngest inmates, younger than 18 years, had the highest suicide rate (101 per 100,000 inmates per year) followed by the oldest inmates, older than 55 years (58 per 100,000 inmates per year).4
Nationally, blacks were less likely to commit suicide in correctional facilities. In NY corrections,9,19 blacks accounted for only 23.7% of suicide cases, and in the Maryland prison system, whites were twice as likely as other racial groups to commit suicide.16,20 The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reported that in local jails, the suicide rate for black inmates was 16 for every 100,000 per year compared with the rate of 30 per 100,000 per year for Hispanics and 96 per 100,000 per year for white inmates.4
The suicide rates have been much higher for jail populations than for the general population, as well as for prison populations. According to BJS, the jail suicide rate in 2002 (47 per 100,000 inmates) was more than five times higher than the rate in the general population (8.9 per 100,000),21 and three times higher than the rate in prisons (14 per 100,000).4 Although the rate of suicide deaths is still higher in incarcerated populations than in the general population, recent suicide rates in correctional facilities, both jails and prisons, have decreased in the US. According to a BJS report, jail suicide rates have declined since 1983 from 129 per 100,000 to 47 per 100,000 in 2002.4 Homicide rates in jails were relatively steady over the last 20 years: 5 per 100,000 in 1983 and 3 per 100,000 in 2002. The rates of suicides and homicides also have noticeably declined in prisons. The suicide rate in state prisons was 34 in 1980 and dropped to 14 in 2002; the homicide rate in state prisons was 54 in 1998 and decreased to 4 per 100,000 in 2002.
Recent studies reported that HIV/AIDS related mortality has been decreasing in correctional facilities as the death rate due to HIV/AIDS has declined in the general population, consistent with the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). The NY correctional services reported that during 1990 and 1995, the mortality rate due to HIV/AIDS was on average 36.4 in every 100,000 inmates, which had decreased to 8.6 in 1997.22 BJS reported that in local jails, the mortality rate for AIDS was 20 in 1988 and decreased to 8 in 2002; in state prisons, the rate was 100 in 1995 and dropped to 20 in 2002.4
All-cause mortality in state prisons, on the other hand, showed a slight increase from 233 in 1980 to 246 per 100,000 in 2002.4 The overall increase in mortality in prisons over the last two decades may be in part due to the increase in chronic illness among the population. BJS summarized that by 2002, 52% of all deaths in jails were due to illnesses. In the Atlanta–Fulton County correctional facilities in Georgia, between 1974 and 1985, the majority of deaths among inmates were due to natural causes.23 Salive and colleagues16 also reported that over 68% of all deaths in the Maryland prison system over the 11-year study period was due to illnesses.
Deaths from heart diseases were prominent among inmates. In Ontario correctional systems, cardiovascular diseases were the most frequent nonviolent cause of death among inmates between 1990 and 1999.12 In the NY study, heart disease was the most common cause of death other than suicide, followed by cerebrovascular diseases.9 In Maryland state prisons, for the period of 1979–1987, circulatory system diseases were the most frequent cause of death.8
Hollander, Vignona, and Burstein argue that one of the reasons for a high mortality rate for heart disease is because a disproportionately high number of inmates abuse substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and predominantly cocaine.24,25 The inmates who died of heart diseases were especially among younger ethnic minorities compared to the deaths due to heart diseases in the general population.12 It has been reported that there is an increased risk of heart disease among young cocaine users, without specific risk factors.26,27Cocaine use and the combination of cocaine and smoking and/or alcohol increases the risk of myocardial infarction, sudden death from cardiac arrest, and other aneurysms.24
The Cook County Department of Corrections (CCDOC)—Cook County Jail—is the largest single-site county predetention facility in the US, and primarily holds pretrial offenders.28 Among CCDOC detainees, an estimated 20% are released within 3 days, and 47% return home within a week, and the average length of stay is 51 days.29 The total number of CCDOC incarcerations grew from 77,103 in 1992 to 100,071 in 1998. Approximately 850,000 detainees entered CCDOC from 1995 to 2004,30 and on average 277 new inmates were admitted daily to CCDOC.31 CCDOC was occupied at 113.9% in 1995 and 106.1% of capacity in 2004, housing over 9,000 inmates daily between 1995 and 2004.28,30 The proportion of female inmates, although still small, had grown from 12.5% of the incarcerated population in 1992 to 14.4% in 1998. Cermak Health Services (CHS), the health care service facility at CCDOC, offers health services to inmates.31 CHS screens inmates for various illnesses at intake and treats their health issues through sick calls, specialty clinics, and the emergency room. In 2005, a total of 83,462 incarcerations were made, and screened by emergency medical technicians at intake. Of those, 37.4% of male and 56.7% of female inmates were seen by a physician or a physician assistant for one or more health issues during the intake screening.
We reviewed all deaths in CCDOC between 1995 and 2004. The CHS mortality and morbidity committee reviews deaths in the jail. The actual causes of death were based on the Medical Examiner’s reports, which were based on their autopsy results. All causes of death during the 10-year period were coded using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 9th edition, which was implemented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to categorize the causes of mortality for the US general population.32,33Mortality Data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) was used to compare mortality rates for the general population with the rates in the jail. NVSS is the official vital statistics collected and managed by the National Center for Health Statistics. Age adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for the general population were obtained from the National Vital Statistics Reports.32
On average, 9,878 inmates resided in the jail on any given day in a year and 97,473 inmates were incarcerated per year. The inmate’s age was categorized into CDC’s 10-year age intervals. Computing mortality rates in incarcerated populations, an appropriate denominator is difficult, since the population is constantly moving in and out of the correctional system. Although there have been discussions about using the total number of incarcerations as the denominator instead of an average daily census, we utilized average daily census, since the rates based on the total number of incarcerations lack a time component and thus do not represent true mortality rates. Overall and cause-specific mortality rates in the jail were calculated using the average daily census of each year. We then compared the rates between the jail and the general populations. The standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed (the observed mortality rates for CHS over the expected mortality rates for the US population), using the average daily census.
Additional variables including demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, and education level) and incarceration related variables (number of incarcerations, length of stay in jail, and type of charge) were retrieved from the Correctional Institution Management Information System, the Cook County Jail information system, and were used to describe this population. Causes of death were recategorized into three groups: illness related death, infectious/inflammatory related death, and non-illness related death. We compared the frequency and percent of demographic and incarceration-related characteristics by cause of death. Analysis of variance tests and chi-square tests were used to examine the associations between demographic and incarceration-related characteristics and cause of death.
Between 1995 and 2004, there were a total of 178 deaths in CHS. Table 1 summarizes the average daily census, the total number of incarcerations, and number of deaths for each year. The annual population-adjusted death rates were calculated using the average daily census. Table 2 summarizes the causes of death in CHS during the study period by major disease categories. Overall, 53.4% of deaths were due to illnesses such as heart diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, and chronic respiratory disease; 19.7% were associated with infectious/inflammatory diseases including HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, and septicemia; and 27.0% accounted for non-illness related deaths such as suicide, drug overdose/withdrawal, and homicide. The most frequent cause of death was heart-related (18.0%), followed by cerebrovascular diseases (10.7%). Eleven (6.2%) deaths were associated with malignant neoplasm, including lung cancer, sarcoma, rectal cancer, and leukemia. In 16 deaths (9.0%), HIV/AIDS was reported as a primary cause of death. However, an additional 12 inmates, whose primary cause of death was not HIV/AIDS, were HIV positive. Pneumonia (n = 8) and septicemia (n = 8) each accounted for 4.5% of all deaths. There were 19 suicide cases, 10.7% of all deaths, and eight homicide cases, 4.5% of all deaths, during the 10-year period. Deaths related to drug overdose or withdrawal accounted for 6.7% of all deaths (n = 12). There were two perinatal related deaths; both were by ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
The population-adjusted death rates exhibited year-to-year fluctuations, without a distinct trend over time (Table 1). The age-adjusted mortality rate was highest in 1998 (296 per 100,000 inmates per year) and lowest in 2003 (75 per 100,000 inmates per year). The gender distribution of deaths roughly resembled the distribution in the total jail population; 159 (89.3%) were male inmates and 19 (10.7%) were female inmates (Table 2). The mean age at death was 40.4 years old among male inmates and 37.4 years old among female inmates. As the majority of inmates in CCDOC were blacks, the majority of inmates who died in the jail were black inmates; 73.6% blacks, 18.0% whites, and 6.2% Hispanics. Among females, blacks accounted for 78.9% and whites accounted for 21.1% of the total female deaths.
We compared demographic and incarceration related variables by cause of death (Table 3). Inmates who died of non-illness related causes were younger than those who died of illness-related and infectious/inflammatory diseases. The mean age of the non-illness deaths was 35.0 years old, whereas the mean age was 42.2 years old for the illness-related deaths and 41.1 years old for the infectious/inflammatory causes. Overall, a higher percent of females accounted for non-illness deaths (24.4%) compared with the percent of female cases in the illness-related deaths (6.3%) and in the infectious/inflammatory deaths (2.9%).
While blacks accounted for 70% of all incarcerations in CCDOC during the study period, 62% of the infectious/inflammatory related deaths, 66% of the non-illness related deaths, and over 83% of the illness-related deaths were black inmates. Blacks were underrepresented particularly in suicide cases: 52.6% of the suicide deaths were blacks, 15.8% Hispanics, and 31.6% whites.
There was no statistical difference in number of incarcerations, marital status, level of education, or type of charge by type of death. Over 14% of illness deaths, 3% of infectious/inflammatory disease deaths and over 27% of non-illness related deaths occurred within 2 days after incarceration (Table 3). Sixty-three percent of illness-related deaths, 74% of infectious/inflammatory disease deaths and 48% of non-illness related deaths occurred a month after incarceration. At the time of death, male inmates tended to stay longer in the jail with a median of 80 days (mean of 172.4 days) compared with a median of 1 day (mean of 86.2 days) in jail among female inmates (data not shown). Overall, 61% of all deaths occurred after a month of stay in jail. Over 63% of female deaths and only 9% of male deaths occurred within 2 days after incarceration, on the other hand, more than 26% of female deaths and about 65% of male deaths occurred after a month of stay in jail (Figure 1).
Table 4 shows the comparison of disease-specific mortality rates and SMRs between CHS and the general population. Overall, the age-adjusted all-cause mortality rate in CHS (521.0 per 100,000 inmates per year) was lower than the rate in the US general population (845.3 per 100,000 per year). The mortality rates for most of illness-related causes were lower for the CHS inmates than for the general population. Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death both in CHS and in the general population. The mortality rate for heart disease was significantly higher for the CHS inmates than for the general population. SMR between CHS and the general population was not statistically significant for liver disease. The morality rates for pulmonary embolism and gastrointestinal bleeding did not significantly differ between the CHS inmates and the general population.
The rates for most of infectious/inflammatory diseases were higher in the jail inmates than in the general population. SMR for septicemia between the inmates and the general population was not statistically significant. The mortality rates for pneumonia and HIV were significantly higher for the inmates than in the general population. Among the non-illness related causes of death, the mortality rates for unintended injury and ruptured ectopic pregnancy were significantly lower for the inmates than for the general population; the rates for suicide, drug overdose/withdrawal, and homicide were not significantly different between the inmates and the general population.
Causes of death were quite different between males and females (Figure 2). Among the male deaths, the leading causes of death were heart disease (18%), cerebrovascular disease (12%), suicide (11%), and HIV/AIDS (10%). Among the female deaths, however, drug overdose or withdrawal (37%) was the most frequent cause of death, followed by heart disease (21%) and perinatal-ruptured ectopic pregnancy (11%). A nearly 12 times higher percentage (37%) of female deaths than of male deaths (3%) was related to drug overdose/withdrawal.
The majority of inmates who committed suicide did so by hanging (89.5%); two suicide cases were by fall and ingestion of a toxic chemical. There was only one female suicide death: she was charged with first-degree murder and had never been incarcerated before. She was a 40-year-old African American single woman with no child. She stayed in the jail for more than 2 years and committed suicide by fall. There was no homicide death in female inmates.
Overall, there was no distinct trend in the population-adjusted death rates over time. Although the fluctuation in the year-by-year rates seems significant, it may be more likely due to the relatively small number of deaths. The all-cause mortality rate in the jail was lower than the rate in the general population. Speculations have been made on reasons for the lower mortality rates in correctional settings.8,9 Incarceration may offer a protected environment where potential deaths due to violent activities in the community, risky health behaviors, or unintended injuries may be prevented. There may also be a selection effect whereby incarceration more frequently occurs among healthy individuals than among persons who are ill within a similar age group. Our study results in part support these suppositions: most of illness related death rates, unintended injuries and homicide deaths were higher in the general population. In addition, constant monitoring and universal access to health care in the jail might have improved health outcomes for those who are sick who do not have such access in the community.
Heart disease was the most frequent cause of death, followed by cerebrovascular diseases and suicide. One possible explanation for the increased deaths associated with heart and cerebrovascular diseases has been suspected to be the overall aging of jail inmates.5,6 To examine the potential aging effect on high rates of heart and cerebrovascular related deaths, we examined mean and median ages of all incoming inmates, by year, over the study period, utilizing available booking information (1996–2004). There was no distinct pattern in heart related deaths by year (from 16.7% in 1995, 3.1% in 1999, 50% in 2002, and 12.5% in 2004), although the mean age of incoming inmates steadily increased by year from 30.5 (median = 29.4) in 1996 to 32.4 (median = 31.1) in 2004. The mean age difference was modest (1.9 years), which seems unlikely to have a significant effect on death rates over the study period. Although we did not examine direct associations, a high rate of mortality was associated with heart as well as cerebrovascular diseases among younger inmates, which may be due to the high proportion of substance abusers, especially as a result of cocaine use and the combined use of cocaine and smoking and/or alcohol. The effects of cocaine on cardiovascular health among young ethnic minorities are well studied.20–24 Further research will be needed to explore this association between drug use and heart related deaths.
To answer why the heart related mortality rate was high among the inmates who are not in the usual at risk groups, we reviewed in detail the heart related death records. The findings of our record review suggested that some cardiac deaths could be subclassified. Causes of death in this study relied upon the Medical Examiner’s reported cause of death. At times, the suspected anatomic cause of death may obscure the etiologic basis of death. For example, we found cases of sudden death reported as heart related deaths: a blow to the chest in a young man preceded one of these sudden deaths; being restrained for 3 consecutive days preceded another sudden death. While the cause of death was reported as cardiovascular, the etiologic basis of death may have been otherwise. In another case, a sudden death ascribed to heart related death was associated with someone whose dominant medical condition was active peptic ulcer disease. Another 86-year-old man with a history of stroke, pressure sores, and bladder cancer died suddenly. In retrospect, we suspected sepsis. Although medical examiners determined these cases to be cardiac deaths largely based on the autopsy findings and their clinical judgment, there may be other etiologic causes. Existing coding schemes may not address these issues. Attention should be paid to more precise determination of the actual etiologic cause of death.
All cases of sudden death were reported as cardiovascular with or without underlying anatomic heart conditions identified at autopsy. The ICD-9 codes defines a sudden death (798.2) as “death occurring in less than 24 hours from onset of symptoms, not otherwise explained; death known not to be violent or instantaneous, for which no cause could be discovered; died without any sign of disease.” In these cases, we could not be certain that these deaths were directly associated with preexisting heart conditions, but seemed to occur without immediate causes or signs of disease. Interestingly, none of those sudden deaths with heart conditions but 80% of the cases without heart conditions were reported to have a history of substance use. We realize the need for further research to sort out and subcategorize underlying issues among heart related deaths to better understand reasons for the high rate of mortality in the jail.
Mortality rates due to infectious or inflammatory illnesses were higher in the jail than in the general population. HIV was presented in 9% of deaths, making HIV the fourth most frequent cause of death in the jail population. Overall, 16% of all deaths were HIV infected inmates. Death rates of pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis in the jail were higher than in the general population, with 25% of these deaths also HIV infected. While HIV deaths have been declining in the US, HIV is still a major underlying cause of death in the incarcerated population. This result suggests that providing quality HIV care to known HIV patients in the jail is a higher priority. In addition, implementing a systematic HIV screening program is also important to detect and provide care at an earlier stage, since many inmates may not know their HIV status.
The majority of deaths occurred in male inmates, similar to the gender distribution of the inmate population. However, a disproportionately higher percentage of deaths due to drug overdose and withdrawal was observed among female inmates. This result coincides with the fact that over half of female deaths, compared with 28% of male deaths, were incarcerated for drug charges. Female inmates are more likely than male inmates to have history of using drugs as well as to be recent users. We speculate that women may be more vulnerable to dehydration due to drug withdrawal and overdose because of their smaller body mass than men. Although a disproportionate percentage of incarcerated individuals are substance abusers, a national survey in 2000 showed that only 34% of jails provided some form of detoxification programs.34 The study finding—more than 50% of drug overdose/withdrawal occurred within the first 2 days of incarceration and over 69% within a week—indicates that establishing standards for screening and treating drug withdrawal during the intake screening, is critical in reducing potentially preventable deaths. Although it is challenging for care providers with limited resources to quickly identify and provide care for high risk individuals, simple and immediate improvements can be made, such as making drinking water available for detainees, many of whom are going through drug withdrawal and dehydration.
Suicides rates were very low in this study and compare favorably with suicide rates in jails nationwide. Intensive programming exists for suicide prevention at this facility. This study demonstrates the benefits of a suicide prevention program for jails. Blacks accounted for over 75% of illness-related deaths and homicide, but just above 50% of suicide deaths. This result was consistent with the results from previous studies in which white and Hispanic inmates were more likely to commit suicide.13,15,19,35 Speculation for this result is that the community notion of incarceration, and the experience of shame and the stigma of incarceration may be different among ethnic groups. It may be also that white and Hispanic inmates are more likely to have mental/psychological illnesses, since previous mental illness has been identified as a risk factor for suicide.19,35 Jail suicide may be a reflection of what is happening in the free world. As Tartaro and Lester36discussed, the suicide rate in correctional settings is closely associated with social integration in the society: this suggests that suicide among inmates needs to be examined within the larger societal context.
Consistent with previous study findings,4,9,16,17 an overwhelmingly high percentage of suicide cases in our study were incarcerated for first degree murder. This may explain the guilt and social isolation; and the potential long sentence due to a severe crime may increase hopelessness in the inmates. Additional risk factors identified from previous studies include mental illness, history of suicidal ideation or attempt, substance use, lack of social support/resources, or upcoming court date. Although in CHS, care providers collect information regarding mental status, history of attempted suicide, and other factors affecting potential risk of suicide including homelessness, marital status, and employment during the intake screening, these critical data elements are not fully utilized, since the current intake screening is in a paper-and-pencil form. Computerizing intake screening information is crucial to overcome this common challenge of linking data from multiple sources to best serve the population.
Overall, more than 60% of deaths occurred among inmates incarcerated longer than a month. Particularly, almost 90% of deaths due to illnesses occurred after a month of stay in jail. This result highlights the importance of consistent health care for inmates with chronic conditions. Currently systematic chronic disease surveillance dose not exist, and little is known about the prevalence of chronic illness in incarcerated populations. Chronic conditions of inmates need to be addressed throughout the time of incarceration to improve health outcomes among inmates.37
Monitoring mortality rates in the jail is a useful tool to plan for quality care to meet the needs of inmates who do not have access to stable primary care in the free world. As the number of inmates with chronic illnesses increases, jail health care should be reengineered to effectively implement the key elements of the chronic care approach: systematic surveillance and monitoring of chronic disease, and continuity of care.
Gender-specific care should be designed to meet different health issues. Although the proportion of females is still small, their health needs are as urgent as those of male inmates. The majority of women in jails are single mothers of dependent children, and women’s health status may greatly affect other household members.
Methodological limitations in jail mortality rates include difficulty establishing the true number of person-years, examining the underlying causes of death, and controlling for multifaceted compounding factors from the exposure. Developing computerized databases and linking multiple data sources may help better explore the causes of death in this population with complex health issues.
Despite the fact that inmates are at high risk of multiple health issues, the lower mortality rates observed when compared with the rates in the general population in various illness categories leads us to hypothesize that jail health care has a critical role of providing a safety net for these vulnerable members of our society and improving public health at large.
Seijeoung Kim, PhD, Postdoctoral fellow is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Training Grant # 1 T01 CD000189-01.
Kim and Davis are with the Division of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, Chicago, USA; Ting, Puisis, Rodriguez, Benson and Mennella are with the Cermak Health Services, Chicago, IL, USA.
- ™JCANGELCRAFT ® is a registered Trademark © all rights reserved. In partnership with the Holy Spirit,
- ™JCANGELCRAFT ® is a registered Trademark © all rights reserved. In partnership with the Holy Spirit ,
- ™ JCANGELCRAFT ® est une marque déposée © tous droits réservés. En partenariat avec le Saint-Esprit ,
….everything begins at JC Angelcraft …. everything begins with Jesus Christ http://jcangelcraft.wordpress.com/,
Crown Energy ,
- ™Crown Energy Corporation (CEC).corpvs,
- ™Crown World Petroleum & Natural Gas Reserve (CRWNPRNC)®is a registered trademark © all rights reserved by God’s grace we serve the public.,
- ™(Crown Energy) Crown World Petroleum & Natural Gas Reserve Corporation ™(CRWPRNC).corpvs,
- ™Crown Industries ,
- ™Crown Industrials,
- ™Crown Aquisitiations Holdings Partners and Subsidiaries,
- ™Angelcraft Crown Media News Corporation …AM with you always http://angelcraftcrownmediaandnewscorporation.wordpress.com ,
- (CWB) ™Crown World Bank is a registered trademark of®CWB™Angelcraft Crown World Bank and Reserve™CWB.corpvs a Holy Spirit Corporation © all rights reserved. When mankind fails – our Holy Spirit will not let us down despite our own unawareness and our own ignorance or denial – http://angelcraftcrownworldbankreserve.wordpress.com,
- (ACWBRF) ™Angelcraft Crown World Development Foundation.corpvs ™ACWBRF.corpvs is an Angelcraft Crown World Bank and Reserve Foundation with offices worldwide.http://angelcraftcrownworlddevelopmentfoundation.wordpress.com/,
- AGEO™Angelcraft Crown GEO-Science & Aerospace Foundation™AGE0.corpvs is an AU Angelcraft Crown Aerospace Foundation with offices worldwide. We are your Theocracy’s Space Program and all programs that deal with Safe Research and Eco-Technology http://angelcraftcrowngeoscienceandaerospacefoundations.wordpress.com,
- (ACF) ™ The Angelcraft Foundation for Education World Development in Education™ACF.corpvs The Department of Education for Every Theocracy http://theangelcraftfoundationforeducation.wordpress.com/ ,
- (ACWHC) ™Angelcraft Crown World Heritage Conservation ™ACWHC.corpvs Society a body of Believers who by Faith in the Holy Spirit know anything is possible. We have taken over UNESCO and disolved United Nations Keep Viable some old United Nations Non Governmental Organizations not related to old United Nations news or policy now part of the conspiracy of lies except on (eCHoe) always check (eCHoe) for clarity politics, business, philanthropy, and government. http://angelcraftcrownworldheritageconservationsociety.wordpress.com/,
- (FJA) Fundacion JC Angelcraft A.C. ™FJA.corpvs Tax Payer ID Espiritu Santo (2008) ™FJA 0809108B5 http://fundacionjcangelcraftacparalaeducacion.wordpress.com/,
ACF ™The Angelcraft Foundation for Education (ACF). corpvs (2008) 501 (c)3 Non Profit Organization http://theangelcraftfoundationforeducation.wordpress.com/,
- ™Aquarius Planitarius Humanitarius.corpvs a Holy Spirit Activist Faith and Theocratic Univeristy – a Holy Spirit Institution of Higher Learning http://aquariusourlivingwater.wordpress.com/ et http://www.facebook.com/Aquarius-Planitarius-Humanitariuscorpvs-1512242769014056,
- ™Desires of Your Hearts Corporation.corpvs. ESP.501(c)3 © all rights reserved http://thedesiresofyourhearts.wordpress.com,
- Security References, Police Industry, Government and World Activism and Energy references,
- Defense District in Paris is Headquarters to Angelcraft Crown Global Security Corporation and Affiliates. ,
- ™(Crown Energy) Crown World Petroleum & Natural Gas Reserve Corporation ™(CRWPRNC).corpvs http://crownworldpetroleumandnaturalgasreservecorporation.wordpress.com/
- ™ANSΨ Angelcraft Crown Global Security Corporation an official registered International law enforcement agency http://angelcraftcrownglobalsecuritycorporation.wordpress.com,
- ™ANSΨ Angelcraft Crown Global Security Services (AGS) an official registered International law enforcement agency http://angelcraftcrownglobalsecurityservices.wordpress.com,
- ™ANSΨ Angelcraft Crown Security Division (ASD) an official registered International law enforcement agency http://angelcraftcrownsecuritydivision.wordpress.com,
- ™ANSΨ Angelcraft Crown Intelligence (ACIA) an official registered International law enforcement agency http://angelcraftcrownintelligenceacademy.wordpress.com,
- ™INTERPOL International Police (for recruitment only not an approved news provider see INTERPOL Boss Blog for Official News) http://www.interpol.int/Recruitment,
- ™INTERPOL International Police and Intelligence force an official registered International law enforcement agency https://internationalpoliceandintelligenceforce.wordpress.com/,
- ™General Dynamics Corporation ™(GD),corpvs an official registered International law enforcement support agency http://generaldynamicsaerospacerailengineeringcorporation.wordpress.com/,
- AU™Angelcraft Agencia Aeronáutica, Aeroespacial y Industria General de la Corona.corpvs juntos con Dios Nuestro Espíritu Santo Nada es impossible http://angelcraftaeronauticadelacorona.wordpress.com,
- (ACCERN)™AngelKraft Crown Center for Energy Research – Building 867 – 01280 Prévessin-Moëns -France,
- (ACCERN)™AngelKraft Crown Center for Energy Research -Building 602 – Address: 602- Route de Meyrin 385- 1211 Meyrin – Switzerland Phone:+41 22 767 61 11 an official registered International law enforcement support agency,
- ™Angelcraft Crown Architectural Corporation ™(ArCh).corpvs is such an important mega-congolmerate and regulatory agency http://angelcraftcrownarchitectural.wordpress.com/ ,
- Autorisé par l’Esprit Saint et écrit par Prince Adagio 1st Nom Divin JV Agnvs Dei Verbm Dei Filvs Dei Prince Jose Maria Chavira – Adagio 1st – Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira MS Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum – Aga Khan V – Primogenitvs Filvs Dei Hominis Spiritvs Nome de Plume JC Angelcraft ,
- Ave Verum Corpus Witness of YHWH and witnesses of Jehova may understanding bless the Holy Spirit that through Christ Jesus I pray blessed the World ,
- La Couronne Monde Château Versailles France – Adagio 1st – The Prince of Peace –http://francelarenaissancedejesuschristleroyaumedescieux.wordpress ,
- Theocracy of Italia His Royal Highness Sir Andre Bocelli Son Altesse Royal Absolute ruler of the Vatican and Holy Roman King of the Vatican State a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Italia His Royal Highness Sir Andre Bocelli Son Altesse Royal Absolute ruler of the Vatican and Holy Roman King of the Vatican State a Prince of Peace,
- Theocracy of Italia His Royal Highness Sir Andre Bocelli Son Altesse Royal Absolute ruler of the Vatican and Holy Roman King of the Vatican State a Prince of Peace ,
- Teocrazia del Vaticano – Pope Paolo Septimas (Luce caecatur Iesu Christi) Rey del Vaticano – Italia – Rex Civitatis Vaticanae Italia – a Prince of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Vatican – His Royal Highness Papa Paolo Septimas (Luce caecatur Iesu Christi) Rex Civitatis Vaticanae, Italia a Prince ofPeace ,
- Theocracy of Italia Her Royal Highness Princess Alexia Fendi Italia – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Korea His Royal Highness Sir Sungbong Choi 崔聖奉 born in February 18 1990 – a Prince of Peace ,
- The Divine Royals of The Independet and Autonomous Theocracy of Ireland a Vital Member of The United Kingdom,
- Theocracy of Ireland Her Royal Highness – Son Altesse Royal Princess Andrea Jane Corr Born 17 May 1974 – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Ireland Her Royal Highness – Son Altesse Royal Princess Sharon Helga Corr (born 24 March 1970 – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Ireland Her Royal Highness – Son Altesse Royal Princess Sharon Helga Corr Caroline Georgina Corr born 17 March 1973 – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Ireland His Royal Highness Sir James Steven Corr born 31 July 1964 – a Prince of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Netherlands Her Royal Highness Princess Amira Willighagen born March 27, 2004 Divine Name Son Altesse Royal Princess Sorenson – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of Belgium – Her Royal Highness Queen Mathilde of Belgium DHS (born Mathilde Marie Christiane Ghislaine d’Udekem d’Acoz on 20 January 1973 – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of Kurdistan – li nûjên û pen conductor oh hair Kurdistan – Her Royal highness Sarah the Divine – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of China Her Royal Highness Empress Princess Li Mei Snow – 李梅雪 – the Magnificent 宏偉 – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of China Her Royal Highness Princess June Chen 陳月 – the Kind – 那種 – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Mae de La Cruz Ruling Queen the Wise – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Princess Mae Domingo – the Lovely – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Indonesia her Royal Highness Iis Purnama Wati Princess Flur de Lis – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Princess Guy Otic Lubguban – The Devout – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Princess Alexis Luguban – the Caring – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Princess Mae Zhaira Ramil – the Wise – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the Philipines Princess Mae Bergado the Enchanting – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Indonesia Her Royal Highness Princess Serry Muct Muct the Caring and the Wise – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Persia Her Royal Highness Azita Roohgandom Doctor of Law daughter of General Roohgandom of the Shahs Private army – دولت های حکومت مذهبی ایران رویال حضرت آز Roohgandom دکترای حقوق دختر او از عمومی Roohgandom از ارتش خصوصی شاهان. – the Lovely and the Beautiful ,
- Theocracy of Persia Her Royal Highness Christina Roohgandom a daughter of General Roohgandom of the Shahs Private army –The Kind the Caring and the Wise ,
- The Autonomous Voting Theocratic Monarchy and Sovereignty of the United States of America https://thewhitehousegov.wordpress.com ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Queen Mary’s Palace at Camp David – Official Palace of Maria Ramirez Chavira Queen Mary of the United States of America and acting President and Prime Minister at the White House home to freedom of Speech http://officialpalaceofmarymonarchoftheamericantheocracy.wordpress.com ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America her Royal Highness Maria Ramirez Chavira Born Maria Ramirez San Antonio Texas United States of America – Divine Name Queen Mary the House of Adagio 1st wife of Adagio 1st 20 years seperated and divorced by the laws men by irreconcilable differences – but not divorced before the eyes of the Holy Spirit – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Queen Mary Duchess of the District of Columbia – Duchess and Queen of Maryland, Duchess of Anaheim Hills – Yorba Linda, Victoria Santa Ana – Duchess of Santa Barbera – Duchess Saint Helena – Duchess of Sonoma County and Filia Dei – a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Son Altesse Royal Queen Mary wife of Son Altesse Royal Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Nome de Plume JC Angelcraft – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Son Altesse Royal Queen Mary acting President and Prime Minister of the United States of America a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Son Altesse Royal Queen Maria wife of Son Altesse Royal Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Nome de Plume JC Angelcraft The Prince of Peace,
- Theocracy of the United States of America Son Altesse Royal Queen Maria the Healer and Wise Counselor a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of The United States of America – Her Royal Highness Angela Fenimore “the Devout” Appointed Secretary of State and prophetess of the Church of Mormon – The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Dei Saints a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the United States of America – Her Royal Highness Princess Noelle “Katie Holmes” Queen Noel of Toledo Ohio – United States – Vice President and Vice Minister at the White House by appointment of Providence Theocracy of the United States of America a Princess of Peace ,
- Her Royal Highness Georgiana Princess Elizabeth Spencer 1st the Lovely and the Wise – the ruling Queen of Chicago Illinois a Princess of Peace ,
- Teocracia Mexicana Gobierno de La Teocracia y Monarquía de Espíritu Santo http://gobiernodelateocraciaymonarquiadeespiritusanto.wordpress.com ,
- Gobierno de La Teocracia y Monarquía de Espíritu Santo, Princesa Angelica Rivera the Wonderful – a Princess of Peace,
- Her Royal Highness Theocracy of Germany Queen Pax – Ihre Königliche Hoheit Theokratie von Deutschland Königin Pax a Princess of Peace ,
- Teocracia Mexicana – Gobierno de La Teocracia y Monarquía de Espíritu Santo Princesa Fuentes a Princess of Peace ,
- Teocracia Mexicana – Gobierno de La Teocracia y Monarquía de Espíritu Santo princesa Lisette Morelos a Princess of Peace ,
- Théocratie de France – The Voting Theocracratic Government of France,
- Théocratie de France- Son Altesse Royale Princess Charlotte Marie Casiraghi-Grimaldi Rainier – de l’Arc – the Lovely and the Wise . a Princess of Peace Le gouvernement théocratique vote de la France,
- Theocracy of Corsica – Son Altesse Royale Alizee Jacotey – The Irristibale – Le gouvernement théocratique vote de la France a Princess of Peace – Théocratie de France ,
- Theocracy of Poland Son Altesse Royale Prince Marcin VonZoltowski Baron of Lódź Król Rządu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej a Prince of Peace, ,
- Theocracy of Monaco Son Altesse Royale Charlene Lynette Wittstock Gouvernement théocratique vote de Monaco a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Egypt Her Royal Highness Princess Ameera bint Aidan bin Nayef Al-Taweel Al-OtaibiArabic:الاميرة اميرة بنت عيدان بن نايف الطويل العصيمي العتيبي; born 6 November 1983 The ruling Queen of Egypt الملكة الحاكم في مصر a Princess of Peace ,
- Théocratie de Egypt – Son Altesse Royale – Her Royale Highness Princess Ameera bint Aidan bin Nayef Al-Taweel Al-OtaibiArabic a Princess of Peace,
- Theocracy of Egypt – Queen Rania Al-Abdullah of Jordan Arabic:رانيا العبد الله Rāniyā al-ʻAbd Allāh; born Rania Al-Yassin on 31 August 1970 – a Princess of Peace ,
- Teocracia de Columbia – La Princesa Claudia Palacios del Jardin Reina de la Teocracia de Columbia – a Princess of Peace ,
- Teocracia de Venzuela Princesa Hevis Scarlet Ortíz Pacheco La Amorosa – Reina de la Teocracia de Venezuela a Princess of Peace – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of England Her Royal Highness Catherine Windsor “the Great” The Queen of England – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of the United Kingdom Princess Kate Middleton Catherine of Windsor a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Great Britain Son Altesse Royal Catherine the Great a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Russia – Her Royal Highness Lena Gubarvara – a Princess of Peace ,
- Theocracy of Italy – Sua Altezza Reale Princess Fendi Regina del governo di voto d’Italia Regina del governo di voto d’Italia a Princess of Peace ,