Day 5 The Writings and Letters of Thomas Jefferson: How many of us take the time to ponder the depth of the character of the souls that fill our national monuments and our lives

Washington D.C. July 28 2017   I wonder sometimes if we as humans have not faltered in our esteeming of men, especially these last years falling to traps and false news and profiles of the media over men such as Trump or Obama not ever seeing any breadth of true work deserving of a monument such as the likes of Thomas Jefferson.

The men that we do really esteem, the men whom we call our Founding Fathers is because their unswerving character in the founding of the nation that shines forth like a light bright light.

The meticulous preservation of their writings justify all the accolades and deserving of the title Mr. President,

This is one of the reasons we are going through the notes and writings of our founding fathers like Thomas Jefferson and getting into the minds of the men who once led this country during its greatest crisis, a war for its independence like no other,

Our revolutionary war and our civil war are by the far the most important wars our nation has suffered becuase they were faught on our own soil for the reasons that would unite a great nation to help the world in other world wars,

As I review the letters and writings of Thomas Jefferson the man I cannot help but to dig further into any reference of any importance that helps to better define the man such as his reference the Ossian’s poems of which I am now in academic pursuit of more elucidation as the current literature does little to satisfy my need for the character of Ossian apart from the writer and Irish poet who Interpreted the writings.

These things are importance for if a man is esteemed it is because of his character and his character is often defined by his writings, his works, his piety,  and his love literature so when reading the works of Thomas Jefferson how can one not allude to the reading of Ossian’s poems, literature that had Thomas Jefferson had a deep affection for.

On Ossian’s Poems, In Day 4 of our Journey through the life and times of Thomas Jefferson he writes:

Thomas Jefferson Feb. 25, 1773 Virga Mcpherson

To Chas. McPherson, Albemarle, in Virga Feb. 25, 1773 Dear Sir,

—Encouraged by the small acquaintance which I had the pleasure of having contracted with you during your residence in this country, I take the liberty of making the present application to you. I understood you were related to the gentleman of your name (Mr. James McPherson), to whom the world is so much indebted for the elegant collection, arrangement, and translation of Ossian’s poems.

These pieces have been and will, I think, during my life, continue to be to me the sources of daily pleasures.

The tender and the sublime emotions of the mind were never before so wrought up by the human hand.

I am not ashamed to own that I think this rude bard of the north (Ossian)  the greatest poet that has ever existed.

Merely for the pleasure of reading his works I am become desirous of learning the language in which he sung, and of possessing his songs in their original form.

Mr. McPherson, I think, informs us he is possessed of the originals. Indeed, a gentleman has lately told me he had seen them in print; but I am afraid he has mistaken a specimen from Temora, annexed to some of the editions of the translation, for the whole works. If they are printed, it will abridge my request and your trouble, to the sending me a printed copy; but if there be more such my petition is, that you would be so good as to use your interest with Mr. McPherson to obtain leave to take a manuscript copy of them, and procure it to be done.

I would choose it in a fair, round hand, on fine paper, with a good margin, bound in parchments as elegantly as possible, lettered on the back, and marbled or gilt on the edges of the leaves. I would not regard expense in doing this. I would further beg the favor of you to give me a catalogue of the books written in that language, and to send me such of them as may be necessary for learning it.

These will, of course, include a grammar and dictionary. The cost of these, as well as the copy of Ossian, will be (for me), on demand, answered by Mr. Alexander McCaul, sometime of Virginia, merchant, but now of Glasgow, or by your friend Mr. Ninian Minzees, of Richmond, in Virginia, to whose care the books may be sent.

You can, perhaps, tell me whether we may ever hope to see any more of those Celtic (language) pieces published. Manuscript copies of any which are in print, it would at any time give me the greatest happiness to receive.

The glow of one warm thought is to me worth more than money.

I hear with pleasure from your friend that your path through life is likely to be smoothed by success.

I wish the business and the pleasures of your situation would admit leisure now and then to scribble a line to one who wishes you every felicity, and would willingly merit the appellation of, dear sir, Your friend and humble servant.

Footnote reference:  INDO EUROPEAN LANGUAGE TREE

END

If not for the Piety of Thomas Jefferson and his reverence for God one might conclude him to be a pagan based on his love of Celtic and Gaelic myths and legends.

But he was quite much more a man than his love for Ossian might define him.  Jefferson was a man who with George Washington, Benjamin Franklin and the Other signers of the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution stood head and shoulders over other men citizens would call presidents and try to put in the same category or class  as our Founding Fathers.

And some of these presidents or just plain men even killers, like some from these past 17 years-  simple men, order takers having drafted but a few memoirs and signing or framing nothing of legislative significance themselves or done anything significant to earn the title president,

So as you read the history of your real founding Fathers consider what kind of men it took to do the impossible and break away from the worlds greatest military power.  It took men of God and men of faith who believed that men ought not to leave their fates to men they cannot see and Government, legislation and Taxation they cannot control.

With this I leave you to the reading of Ossian’s Poems.  I thought you might be curious.

Ossians Poems Translated from the ancient Gaelic by James Macphereson FREE PDF LITERACY Official Government of the United States of America

 Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum  nom de Plume JC Angelcraft author of the Nine Needs all Humans Have & Special Agent in Charge of the United States of America under Emergency Powers.

July 24 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

The Library is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office.

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I encourage you to visit the Library of Congress in person in Washington, D.C., explore the Library online from wherever you are and connect with us on social media.

Sincerely, Carla Hayden Librarian of Congress https://www.loc.gov/

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American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

If you have specific questions, please Ask a Librarian

Dear citizens greetings and salutations on behalf of Mary of Maryland the White House Administration and all US Law Enforcement the Department of Justice and service branches of the new  USPHS the United States Public Health Service Department of Defense

Be ready and prepared at all times for people who would use the conspiracy of lies to brainwash you. Keep sober-minded.   Please do not drink and drive or play with fire or start mayhem for any reason.

Try to enjoy yourself every day at work at school or in your summer vacation and create something new every day working your mind and developing your talents and skills.

Remember to control your media and stay away from Trump/Obama gatherings and political things that pretend these men are in power.  Trump & Obama are not in power and are stumbling blocks and so is all their media, news and all political initiatives and legislative writings associated with them.

The men who control conspiracy of lies media daily change and are subject to the processes of justice.

Both Trump & Obama and other old names in US Politics are control points for enemies of the state foreign and domestic to get into your minds, hearts and pocket books so be careful and aware of all media and be assured that the justice processes are working on your behalf.

Call the White House if you have any questions.

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum  nom de Plume JC Angelcraft author of the Nine Needs all Humans Have

https://www.facebook.com/S.A.R.Jose.Maria.Chavira.MS.Adagio.1st

http://healthcareinsuranceretirementandauditcorporation.wordpress.com/9-needs-therapy/

 

 

Day 4 The Writings and Letters of Thomas Jefferson for the people of the United States of America

To messrs. inglis and long, merchants at portsmouth

Williamsburgh,  June 11. 1772.
Gentlemen,

—I have just received notice from Mr. Wythe that in the case of Jamieson and Taylor v. Meredith and others he will move at the next court to have the effects delivered in to the plaintiff’s hands. I have not yet had time to enquire whether such steps have been yet taken as will entitle him to do this. However it is better that your correspondents prevent it which cannot be done with certainty but by their sending in their answers in proper form before the next court. I am this moment leaving town having just taken time to inform you of this measure.

[36]

Thomas Jefferson
Feb. 25, 1773
Virga Mcpherson
To Chas. McPherson
Albemarle, in Virga

—Encouraged by the small acquaintance which I had the pleasure of having contracted with you during your residence in this country, I take the liberty of making the present application to you. I understood you were related to the gentleman of your name (Mr. James McPherson), to whom the world is so much indebted for the elegant collection, arrangement, and translation of Ossian’s poems.

These pieces have been and will, I think, during my life, continue to be to me the sources of daily pleasures. The tender and the sublime emotions of the mind were never before so wrought up by the human hand. I am not ashamed to own that I think this rude bard of the north the greatest poet that has ever existed. Merely for the pleasure of reading his works I am become desirous of learning the language in which he sung, and of possessing his songs in their original form.

Mr. McPherson, I think, informs us he is possessed of the originals. Indeed, a gentleman has lately told me he had seen them in print; but I am afraid he has mistaken a specimen from Temora, annexed to some of the editions of the translation, for the whole works. If they are printed, it will abridge my request and your trouble, to the sending me a printed copy; but if there be more such my petition is, that you would be so good as to use your interest with Mr. McPherson to obtain leave to take a manuscript copy of them, and procure it to be done.

I would choose it in a fair, round hand, on fine paper, with a good margin, bound in parchments as elegantly as possible, lettered on the back, and marbled or gilt on the edges of the leaves. I would not regard expense in doing this. I would further beg the favor of you to give me a catalogue of the books written in that language, and to send me such of them as may be necessary for learning it.

These will, of course, include a grammar and dictionary. The cost of these, as well as the copy of Ossian, will be (for me), on demand, answered by Mr. Alexander McCaul, sometime of Virginia, merchant, but now of Glasgow, or by your friend Mr. Ninian Minzees, of Richmond, in Virginia, to whose care the books may be sent. You can, perhaps, tell me whether we may ever hope to see any more of those Celtic pieces published. Manuscript copies of any which are in print, it would at any time give me the greatest happiness to receive.

The glow of one warm thought is to me worth more than money. I hear with pleasure from your friend that your path through life is likely to be smoothed by success. I wish the business and the pleasures of your situation would admit leisure now and then to scribble a line to one who wishes you every felicity, and would willingly merit the appellation of, dear sir, Your friend and humble servant.

[38]

Thomas Jefferson
May 19, 1773
To William Fleming May 19, 1773

—You have before this heard and lamented the death of our good friend Carr. Some steps are necessary to be immediately taken on behalf of his clients. You practised in all his courts except Chesterfield and Albemarle. I shall think I cannot better serve them than by putting their papers into your hands if you will be so good as to take them. I once mentioned to you the court of Albemarle as worthy your attention. If you chuse now to go there I would get you to take his papers for that court also.

They put you in possession of a valuable business. The king’s attorney’s place is vacant there, and might be worth your solliciting. If you think so you should dispatch an express for commission. Otherwise you may be prevented. Write me a line in answer to this and lodge it here within a week, as I shall about that time call here to take the law papers and put them into some channel. Your assistance in these matters will oblige, Dear Fleming your friend and humble serv’t.

Edmund Pendleton
John Randolph
James Mercer
Thomas Jefferson
Patrick Henry, Junior
Gustavus Scott
May 20, 1773
Virginia

advertisement in “virginia gazette”

On serious Consideration of the present state of our practice in the General Court we find it can no longer [39] be continued on the same Terms. The Fees allowed by Law, if regularly paid, would barely compensate our incessant Labours, reimburse our expences and the losses incurred by Neglect of our private Affairs; yet even these Rewards, confessedly moderate, are withheld from us, in a great Proportion, by the unworthy Part of our Clients. Some regulation, therefore, is become absolutely requisite to establish Terms more equal between the Client and his Council. To effect this, we have come to the following Resolution, for the invariable Observance of which we mutually plight our Honour to each other: “That after the 10th day of October next we will not give an Opinion on any Case stated to us but on Payment of the whole Fee, nor prosecute or defend any Suit or Motion unless the Tax, and one half of the Fee, be previously advanced, excepting those Cases only where we choose to act gratis;” and we hope no person whatever may think of applying to us in any other Way. To prevent Disappointment, however, in Case this should be done, we think it proper to give this Warning, that no such Application, either verbal or by Way of Letter, will be answered to in the smallest Degree. We would feel much Concern if a Thought could be entertained that the worthy Part of our Clients could disapprove of this Measure. Their Conduct has been such as calls for our Acknowledgements and might merit exemption from this Strictness, were such Exemption practicable, but they will readily perceive this would defeat the Purpose, and that no distinction of Persons can by any means be attempted. We hope, therefore, from [40] their Friendship, a cheerful concurrence in this Plan, since the Requisition is such only as their Punctuallity would of itself prevent.

Edmund Pendleton,
John Randolph,
James Mercer,
Thomas Jefferson,
Patrick Henry, Junior
Gustavus Scott.
Thomas Jefferson
Francis Eppes
Henry Skipwith
July 15, 1773
Virginia

advertisement in “virginia gazette”

To be sold.

Two Thousand five Hundred and twenty Acres of Land in Cumberland, commonly known by the Name of Saint James’s; one Thousand four Hundred and twenty Acres in the Counties of Goochland and Cumberland, on both Sides of James River, opposite to Elk Island; and one Thousand four Hundred and eighty Acres on Herring Creek, in Charles City County. The above Tracts of Land were of the Estate of the late John Wayles, deceased, devised to the Subscribers, and are now offered for Sale. Persons disposed to purchase may be informed of the Terms, on application to any of the Subscribers; and the Terms of Payment will be made easy, on giving bond and security to

Thomas Jefferson,
Francis Eppes,
Henry Skipwith.

[41]

Thomas Jefferson
Francis Eppes
Henry Skipwith
Sep. 16, 1773
Virginia

advertisement in “virginia gazette”

To be sold.

Five Hundred and fifty Acres of Land in the County of Charles City, with a convenient Dwelling house and other Improvements.

Two Hundred and twenty Acres, in the same County, pleasantly situated on James River.

Two Thousand five Hundred and twenty Acres in the County of Cumberland, commonly known by the name of Saint James’s.

And one Thousand four Hundred and twenty-one Acres in the Counties of Goochland and Cumberland,on both sides of James River, opposite to Elk Island.

The above Tracts of Land were of the Estate of the late John Wayles, deceased, devised to the Subscribers, and are now offered for Sale. Persons disposed to purchase may be informed of the Terms, on application to any one of the Subscribers; and the Times of Payment will be made easy, on Bond and Security to

Thomas Jefferson,
Francis Eppes,
Henry Skipwith.
Thomas Jefferson
June, 1774
Saint Anne

Notice of fast1

To the Inhabitants of the parish of Saint Anne.

The members of the late house of Burgesses having taken into their consideration the dangers [42]impending over British America from the hostile invasion of a sister colony, thought proper that it should be recommended to the several parishes in this colony that they set apart some convenient day for fasting, humiliation and prayer devoutly to implore the divine interposition in behalf of an injured and oppressed people; and that the minds of his majesty, his ministers, and parliament, might be inspired with wisdom from above, to avert from us the dangers which threaten our civil rights, and all the evils of civil war. We do therefore recommend to the inhabitants of the parish of Saint Anne that Saturday the 23d instant be by them set apart for the purpose aforesaid, on which day will be prayers and a sermon suited to the occasion by the reverend Mr. Clay at the new church on Hardware river, which place is thought the most centrical to the parishioners in General.

John Walker. 1
Thomas Jefferson.
Thomas Jefferson
July 26, 1774

Resolution of albemarle County 2

At a Meeting of the Freeholders of the County of Albemarle, assembled in their collective body, at the Court House of the said County, on the 26th of July, 1774:

[43]

Resolved, That the inhabitants of the Several States of British America are subject to the laws which they adopted at their first settlement, and to such others as have been since made by their respective Legislatures, duly constituted and appointed with their own consent. That no other Legislature whatever can rightly exercise authority over them; and that these privileges they hold as the common rights of mankind, confirmed by the political constitutions they have respectively assumed, and also by several charters of compact from the Crown.

Resolved, That these their natural and legal rights have in frequent instances been invaded by the Parliament of Great Britain and particularly that they were so by an act lately passed to take away the trade of the inhabitants of the town of Boston, in the province of Massachusetts Bay; that all such assumptions of unlawful power are dangerous to the right of the British empire in general, and should be considered as its common cause, and that we will ever be ready to join with our fellow-subjects in every part of the same, in executing all those rightful powers which God has given us, for the re-establishment and guaranteeing such their constitutional rights, when, where, and by whomsoever invaded.

It is the opinion of this meeting, that the most eligible means of affecting these purposes, will be to put an immediate stop to all imports from Great Britain, (cotton, osnabrigs, striped duffil, medicines, gunpowder, lead, books and printed papers, the necessary tolls and implements for the handicraft arts and manufactures excepted, for a limited term) and to all [44] exports thereto, after the first day of October, which shall be in the year of our Lord, 1775; and immediately to discontinue all commercial intercourse with every part of the British Empire which shall not in like manner break off their commerce with Great Britain.

It is the opinion of this meeting, that we immediately cease to import all commodities from every part of the world, which are subjected by the British Parliament to the payment of duties in America.

It is the opinion of this meeting, that these measures should be pursued until a repeal be obtained of the Act for blocking up the harbour of Boston; of the Acts prohibiting or restraining internal manufactures in America; of the Acts imposing on any commodities duties to be paid in America; and of the Act laying restrictions on the American trade; and that on such repeal it will be reasonable to grant to our brethren of Great Britain such privileges in commerce as may amply compensate their fraternal assistance, past and future.

Resolved, However, that this meeting do submit these their opinions to the Convention of Deputies from the several counties of this Colony, and appointed to be held at Williamsburg on the first day of August next, and also to the General Congress of Deputies from the several American States, when and wheresoever held; and that they will concur in these or any other measures which such convention or such Congress shall adopt as most expedient for the American good; and we do appoint Thomas Jefferson and John Walker our Deputies to act for this county at the said Convention, and instruct them to conform themselves to these our Resolutions and Opinions.

Thomas Jefferson

Proposed arms for the united states.  A proper device (instead of arms) for the American states united would be the Father presenting the bundle of rods to his sons.

The motto “Insuperabiles si inseparabiles” an answer given in parl. to the H. of Lds & comm. 4. Inst. 35. He cites 4. H. 6. nu 12. parl. rolls, which I suppose was the time it happd.

[46][47]

A SUMMARY VIEW

[none][none]

A SUMMARY VIEW OF THE RIGHTS OF BRITISH AMERICA. SET FORTH IN SOME RESOLUTIONS INTENDED FOR THE INSPECTION OF THE PRESENT DELEGATES OF THE PEOPLE OF VIRGINIA. NOW IN CONVENTION.

By a NATIVE, and MEMBER of the HOUSE of BURGESSES. by Thomas Jefferson

WILLIAMSBURG: Printed by CLEMENTINARIND.

[none]

Est proprium munus magistratus intelligere, se gerere personam civitatis, debereque; ejus dignitatem & decus sustinere, servare leges, jura discribere, ea fidei suæ commissa meminisse.

Cicero De Of. L. 1, C. 34.

(Translation 1) It is the indispensible duty of the supreme magistrate to consider himself as acting for the whole community, and obliged to support its dignity, and assign to the people, with justice their various rights, as he would be faithful to the great trust reposed in him.

(Translation 2) It is the proper role of the captain of the act of understanding, to conduct themselves to the person of the city, take with you; to support the dignity and the honor of his, and maintain the laws, rights, into classes, to faith the soul has been entrusted to remember.

the preface of the editors

The following piece was intended to convey to the late meeting of DELEGATES the sentiments of one of their body, whose personal attendance was prevented by an accidental illness. In it the sources of our present unhappy differences are traced with such faithful accuracy, and the opinions entertained by every free American expressed with such a manly firmness, that it must be pleasing to the present, and may be useful to future ages. It will evince to the world the moderation of our late convention, who have only touched with tenderness many of the claims insisted on in this pamphlet, though every heart acknowledged their justice. Without the knowledge of the author, we have ventured to communicate his sentiments to the public, who have certainly a right to know what the best and wisest of their members have thought on a subject in which they are so deeply interested.

[49]

A SUMMARY VIEW 1774

One of the most difficult points to be met by the proposed Congress of the Colonies was an agreement of a common ground on which to rest their statements of grievances and claims for redress. While all the colonies were united in resisting and protesting, they nevertheless, like the individuals in each colony, disagreed on foundations and degrees. The various arguments of James Otis, Stephen Hopkins, John Dickinson, Daniel Dulaney, and Richard Bland had each its own supporters and followers, and were all almost equally untenable. Virginia being so prominent in the movement for the Congress, as well as in colony influence generally, her instructions to her attending delegates would carry great if not controlling influence in that body, and might supply the field for all future contests. Under this belief, Jefferson desired that the strongest position should be taken from the start, and so prepared this paper as the instructions for the delegates from Virginia to the first Congress. Of it, he himself wrote:

“Before I left home to attend the Convention, I prepared what I thought might be given, in instruction, [50] to the Delegates who should be appointed to attend the General Congress proposed. They were drawn in haste, with a number of blanks, with some uncertainties and inaccuracies of historical facts, which I neglected at the moment, knowing they could be readily corrected at the meeting. I set out on my journey, but was taken sick on the road, and was unable to proceed. I therefore sent on, by express, two copies, one under cover to Patrick Henry, the other to Peyton Randolph, who I knew would be in the chair of the Convention. Of the former, no more was ever heard or known. Mr. Henry probably thought it too bold, as a first measure, as the majority of the members did. On the other copy being laid on the table of the Convention, by Peyton Randolph, as the proposition of a member, who was prevented from attendance by sickness on the road, tamer sentiments were preferred, and, I believe, wisely preferred; the leap I proposed being too long, as yet, for the mass of our citizens. The distance between these, and the instructions actually adopted is of some curiosity, however, as it shews the inequality of pace with which we moved, and the prudence required to keep front and rear together. My creed had been formed on unsheathing the sword at Lexington. They printed the paper, however, and gave it the title of ‘A summary view of the rights of British America.’ In this form it got to London, where the opposition took it up, shaped it to opposition views, and, in that form, it ran rapidly through several editions.”

See also Jefferson’s Autobiography, Vol. I., p. 15.

[51]

Edmund Randolph gives a further and somewhat different account of it as follows:

“Thomas Jefferson, who was one of the elected, was prevented by indisposition from attending. But he forwarded by express for the consideration of its members a series of resolutions. I distinctly recollect the applause bestowed on the most of them, when they were read to a large company at the house of Peyton Randolph, to whom they were addressed. Of all the approbation was not equal. From the celebrated letters of the Pennsylvanian Farmer (John Dickinson) we had been instructed to bow to the external taxation of parliament, as resulting from our migration, and a necessary dependence on the mother country. But this composition of Mr. Jefferson, shook this conceeded principle although it had been confirmed by a still more celebrated pamphlet of Daniel Dulaney of Maryland, and cited by Lord Chatham as a text book of American rights. The young ascended with Mr. Jefferson to the source of those rights, the old required time for consideration before they could tread this lofty ground, which, if it had not been abandoned, at least had not been fully occupied throughout America. From what cause it happened, that the resolutions were not printed by order of the convention does not appear; but as they were not adopted, several of the author’s admirers subscribed for their publication. When the time of writing is remembered, a range of inquiry not then very frequent, and marching far beyond the politics of the day will surely be allowed them.”—Ms. History of Virginia, p. 25.

[52]

These resolutions were printed in a twenty-three-paged pamphlet at Williamsburg, from a copy of which edition, formerly in Jefferson’s possession, and now in the Library of Congress, containing his MS. notes and corrections, it is here reprinted. The numerals inserted in the text indicate the pagings of this edition.

Of this copy Jefferson wrote to Merriwether Jones, Oct. 19, 1804:

“I received last night your favor of the 15th. I have but a single copy of the pamphlet you ask for and that is bound up in a volume of pamphlets of the same year and making one of a long suite of volumes of the same nature. I mention this to impress you with the value I set on the volume as part of the history of the times, and to justify a request of attention in the use and return of it. It happens that Mr. Duval sets out this afternoon for Richmond & furnishes an opportunity of conveying it to you. It should be noted in the republication that the title, the motto and the preface were of the editors, and, with the piece itself, were printed without my knolege. I had drawn the paper at home, set out for the Convention, was taken ill on the road & sent on the paper to Peyton Randolph, moderator of the Convention. It was laid by him on the table of the convention for the perusal of the members, and by them justly deemed ahead of the sentiments of the times: but some of them deemed it useful to publish it & they affixed the title, epigraph and preface. I was informed by Parson Hurt who was in England when it arrived there that it ran through several editions there.”

[53]

It was reprinted in Philadelphia, without any change of text, with the following title:

A / summary view / of the / Rights / of / British America./ Set forth in some / Resolutions / Intended for the / inspection / Of the present / Delegates / Of the / people of Virginia, / Now in / Convention./ By a Native, and Member of the / House of Burgesses./ Williamsburg: Printed: / Philadelphia: Re-Printed by John Dunlap./ M,DCC,LXXIV. [8vo. pp. 23.]

Jefferson states that it was “taken up by the opposition” in England, “interpolated a little by Mr. Burke so as to make it answer opposition purposes, and in that form ran rapidly through several editions.” Two editions were printed in England with the following titles:

A / summary view / of the / Rights / of / British America./ Set forth in some / Resolutions / intended for / the Inspection of the present Delegates / of the People of Virginia, now in Con-/ vention./ . . . / By a Native, and Member of the House of Burgesses./ Williamsburg, Printed by Clementina Rind./ London,/ Re-printed for G. Kearsley, at No. 46, near Sergeants /Inn, in Fleet Street, 1774. [8vo. pp. XVI, 5-44.]

A / summary view / of the / Rights / of / British America./ Set forth in some / Resolutions / intended for / the inspection of the Delegates / of the People of Virginia, now in Con-vention./ . . . / By a Native, and Member of the House of Burgesses. / The Second Edition. / Williamsburg, Printed by Clementina Rind./ London,/ Re-printed [54] for G. Kearsley, at No. 46, near Sergeants / Inn in Fleet Street, 1774. [8vo. pp. XVI, 5-44.]

The texts of these two editions are not, however, in the slightest degree altered or added to, except by a new preface. Of it the Monthly Review said:

“It affords a concise and spirited review of the rights and grievances of the colonies, deduced from their first settlement, and proposed as the subject of an address to his majesty from the several ‘States of British America.

“To this pamphlet is prefixed an address to the King, severely reflecting on the late measures of government, and written with much freedom and boldness, but by whom we are not told.”

This preface here alluded to was written by Arthur Lee, and is as follows:

Thomas Jefferson
King

July 24 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

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Sincerely, Carla Hayden Librarian of Congress https://www.loc.gov/

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American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

If you have specific questions, please Ask a Librarian

Dear citizens greetings and salutations on behalf of Mary of Maryland the White House Administration and all US Law Enforcement the Department of Justice and service branches of the new  USPHS the United States Public Health Service Department of Defense

Be ready and prepared at all times for people who would use the conspiracy of lies to brainwash you. Keep sober-minded.   Please do not drink and drive or play with fire or start mayhem for any reason.

Try to enjoy yourself every day at work at school or in your summer vacation and create something new every day working your mind and developing your talents and skills.

Remember to control your media and stay away from Trump/Obama gatherings and political things that pretend these men are in power.  Trump & Obama are not in power and are stumbling blocks and so is all their media, news and all political initiatives and legislative writings associated with them.

The men who control conspiracy of lies media daily change and are subject to the processes of justice.

Both Trump & Obama and other old names in US Politics are control points for enemies of the state foreign and domestic to get into your minds, hearts and pocket books so be careful and aware of all media and be assured that the justice processes are working on your behalf.

Call the White House if you have any questions.

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Day 3 The Writings and Letters of Thomas Jefferson for the people of the United States of America

To inglis and long, merchants at portsmouth 

Williamsburgh, May 11, 1771.

Gentlemen.

—Yours of the eighth of April I have received, & since that your favour of five pounds as [10] counsel for Messrs. Cunningham & Nisbett at the suit of Jamieson & Taylor. Before we can regularly proceed to take any proofs in the cause it will be necessary for Messrs. Cunningham & Nisbett to send us their answer denying or admitting the several charges in the bill as far as their own knowledge enables them. For this purpose a copy of the bill should be transmitted them. The answer must be sworn to before some justice of the peace, & that he is such must be certified under the seal of their province. As soon as I shall receive the answer immediate care shall be taken to send a commission for the examination of any witnesses Messrs. Cunningham & Nisbett may choose to call on, with directions what matters it will most avail them to prove. This I shall be the better enabled to do when their answer shall have apprised me of the nature of their defence.

With respect to the part yourselves are to act, it will be very plain, as you are not concerned in interest. You must declare what effects of Cunningham & Nisbett you have in your hands, and submit them to the direction of the Court. If you will be pleased by way of letter to state these matters to me I will put them into the usual form of answers & return them to be sworn to. Any further instructions you may think proper to give in this matter shall be diligently attended to by Gent., your very hble servt,

Thomas Jefferson June 1, 1771

Monticello Thomas Adams
To Thomas Adaams
Dear Sir,

—As it was somewhat doubtful when you left the country how far my little invoice delivered you might be complied with till we should know the fate of the association, I desired you to withhold purchasing the things till you should hear farther from me. The day appointed for the meeting of the associates is not yet arrived; however from the universal sense of those who are likely to attend, it seems reduced to a certainty that the restrictions will be taken off everything but the dutied articles. I will therefore venture to desire that branch of my invoice may be complied with in which were some shoes and other prohibited articles; since if contrary to our expectations the restrictions should be continued, I can store, or otherwise dispose of them as our committees please. I must alter one article in the invoice. I wrote therein for a Clavichord. I have since seen a Forte-piano and am charmed with it. Send me this instrument then instead of the Clavichord: let the case be of fine mahogany, solid, not veneered, the compass from Double G. to F. in alt, a plenty of spare strings; and the workmanship of the whole very handsome and worthy the acceptance of a lady for whom I intend it. I must add also ½ doz pr India cotton stockings for myself @ 10/ sterl pr pair, ½ doz pr best white silk do.; and a large umbrella with brass ribs, covered with green silk, and neatly finished. By this [12] change of the Clavichord into a Forte-piano and addition of the other things, I shall be brought in debt to you, to discharge which I will ship you of the first tobacco I get to the warehouse in the fall. I expect by that time, and also from year to year afterwards, I must send you an invoice, with tobacco, somewhat enlarged, as I have it in prospect to become more regularly a pater-familias.

I desired the favor of you to procure me an architect. I must repeat the request earnestly, and that you will send him in as soon as you can.

I shall conclude with one petition: that you send me the articles contained in my invoice and written for above as soon as you receive this, as I suppose they may be bought ready made; and particularly the Forte-piano, for which I shall be very impatient. By this means I may get them in Octob., which will prevent my being obliged to purchase as I must do if they do not come in time.

Thomas Jefferson
Aug. 3, 1771
Monticello To Robert Skipwith ,

 

I sat down with a design of executing your request to form a catalogue of books to the amount of about 50 lib. sterl. But could by no means satisfy myself with any partial choice I could make. Thinking therefore it might be as agreeable to you I have framed such a general collection as I think you would wish and might in time find convenient to procure. Out of this you will chuse for yourself to the amount you mentioned for the present year and [13] may hereafter as shall be convenient proceed in completing the whole. A view of the second column in this catalogue would I suppose extort a smile from the face of gravity. Peace to its wisdom! Let me not awaken it. A little attention however to the nature of the human mind evinces that the entertainments of fiction are useful as well as pleasant. That they are pleasant when well written every person feels who reads. But wherein is its utility asks the reverend sage, big with the notion that nothing can be useful but the learned lumber of Greek and Roman reading with which his head is stored?

I answer, everything is useful which contributes to fix in the principles and practices of virtue. When any original act of charity or of gratitude, for instance, is presented either to our sight or imagination, we are deeply impressed with its beauty and feel a strong desire in ourselves of doing charitable and grateful acts also. On the contrary when we see or read of any atrocious deed, we are disgusted with it’s deformity, and conceive an abhorence of vice. Now every emotion of this kind is an exercise of our virtuous dispositions, and dispositions of the mind, like limbs of the body acquire strength by exercise. But exercise produces habit, and in the instance of which we speak the exercise being of the moral feelings produces a habit of thinking and acting virtuously. We never reflect whether the story we read be truth or fiction. If the painting be lively, and a tolerable picture of nature, we are thrown into a reverie, from which if we awaken it is the fault of the writer. I appeal to every reader of feeling and sentiment [14] whether the fictitious murther of Duncan by Macbeth in Shakespeare does not excite in him as great a horror of villany, as the real one of Henry IV. by Ravaillac as related by Davila? And whether the fidelity of Nelson and generosity of Blandford in Marmontel do not dilate his breast and elevate his sentiments as much as any similar incident which real history can furnish? Does he not in fact feel himself a better man while reading them, and privately covenant to copy the fair example? We neither know nor care whether Lawrence Sterne really went to France, whether he was there accosted by the Franciscan, at first rebuked him unkindly, and then gave him a peace offering: or whether the whole be not fiction. In either case we equally are sorrowful at the rebuke, and secretly resolve we will never do so: we are pleased with the subsequent atonement, and view with emulation a soul candidly acknowleging it’s fault and making a just reparation. Considering history as a moral exercise, her lessons would be too infrequent if confined to real life. Of those recorded by historians few incidents have been attended with such circumstances as to excite in any high degree this sympathetic emotion of virtue. We are therefore wisely framed to be as warmly interested for a fictitious as for a real personage. The field of imagination is thus laid open to our use and lessons may be formed to illustrate and carry home to the heart every moral rule of life. Thus a lively and lasting sense of filial duty is more effectually impressed on the mind of a son or daughter by reading King Lear, than by all the dry volumes of ethics, and divinity [15] that ever were written. This is my idea of well written Romance, of Tragedy, Comedy and Epic poetry.

If you are fond of speculation the books under the head of Criticism will afford you much pleasure. Of Politics and Trade I have given you a few only of the best books, as you would probably chuse to be not unacquainted with those commercial principles which bring wealth into our country, and the constitutional security we have for the enjoiment of that wealth. In Law I mention a few systematical books, as a knowledge of the minutiae of that science is not necessary for a private gentleman. In Religion History, Natural philosophy, I have followed the same plan in general,

But whence the necessity of this collection? Come to the new Rowanty, from which you may reach your hand to a library formed on a more extensive plan. Separated from each other but a few paces the possessions of each would be open to the other. A spring centrically situated might be the scene of every evening’s joy. There we should talk over the lessons of the day, or lose them in music, chess or the merriments of our family companions. The heart thus lightened our pillows would be soft, and health and long life would attend the happy scene. Come then and bring our dear Tibby with you, the first in your affections, and second in mine. Offer prayers for me too at that shrine to which tho’ absent I pray continual devotions.1 In every scheme of happiness she is placed in the foreground of the picture, as the principal figure. Take [16] that away, and it is no picture for me. Bear my affections to Wintipock clothed in the warmest expressions of sincerity; and to yourself be every human felicity. Adieu.

I was of counsel for the libellant also, and though I thought the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the court established [17] beyond a doubt, yet I conceived it did not follow thence that they might deprive the defendant of his parish, because visitation and deprivation are no parts of the office of an ecclesiastical judge. To prove this it was proposed,

To enquire into the first establishment of Christian churches in Great Britain;

To develope their several kinds and constitutions;

To see who is entrusted with their care and visitation; and to apply the principles which this enquiry would evolve to the parochial churches of our own country.

On the first introduction of Christianity into Great Britain, it is certain there were no parochial divisions. The bishops and their clergy lived in common, and occasionally sent out itinerant preachers, to those places where the people seemed disposed to receive them. But when the number of converts became considerable, and the tract of country they occupied extensive, this occasional mission was found inconvenient, and a division into districts or parishes took place. This is supposed by some to have been in the time of Archbishop Honorius, anno 636. But Mr. Selden and others think it of later origin. It is not pretended that this division was then made, as it now remains, into small parishes: it is probable that at first they were few and large, till time and the progress of conversion, made it necessary to divide and subdivide them. 3 Burn’s Eccles. Law, 58.

The King, his great Lords and thanes, for the accommodation of their tenants, having built churches on their manors, obliged their tenants to pay tythes [18] to these churches: for though a law of Ethelwolf, so early as the year 854 (Hume’s History of England) had given tythes to the clergy, yet it left the people at liberty to pay them where and to whom they pleased; a grievance to the drones among the ecclesiastics, not entirely rectified till a law of King Edgar, c. 1. obliged them to pay them to the mother church of the parish. “Debtur omnes decimæ primariæ, ecclesiæ, and quam parochia pertinet.” 1. Bl. 112. The church being situated then on the soil of the lord, being built by himself, and the tythes paid from his tenements and tenants, gave him a natural right to employ any clerk for the celebration of divine service, whom he should choose. 1 Inst. 119. b. The same circumstances would give him a right to remove the clerk whenever he should become deficient in duty. Hence arose the rights of donation, or the disposition of church livings, by laymen. 1 Bl. 111. Gibs. 819. Watson c. 15.

In process of time, however, an encroachment was made by the bishops, on some of the lay patrons who possessed churches of the donative kind. They insisted, and in some instances prevailed on the patron, to give the bishop a right of previously examining the person to whom the church was to be given. For this purpose the patron was to present him to the bishop, who on examination admitted him able, and instituted him into the cure, or refused him altogether; and a maxim was soon established of “once presentative and always presentative.” 1 Inst. 344. a. This innovation is said by Selden, to have been introduced by that pious saint and martyr Thomas [19] à Becket, in the time of Henry II. Seld. tyth. c. 12. But Lord Coke, seems to think that it was not done till the time of Pope Innocent III., which was in the reign of our John. 3. Inst. 201. And thus was introduced a second class of churches distinguished by the name of presentatives.

Of the residue of the parishes, after the donatives and presentatives were taken off, the bishops and clergy still retained the care, and appointed persons to officiate at the several churches. These churches, they doubtless, sometimes built themselves, and sometimes procured leave to convert the old British temples into Christian churches, and so may, in some degree be considered as the founders of them. 3. Bum. E. L. 59. Light as this foundation was, it gave them some color for collating the clerk, and this having been exercised by them from the infancy of Christianity, has acquired the force of immemorial custom, and given reality to the right now known by the name of collation. So that at present, churches are comprehended as Dr. Blackstone rightly says, under the classes of donatives, presentatives and collatives. 2 Bl. 22. Donatives are those churches originally founded and endowed by the crown or lay subject, or perhaps by both, which lie merely in the gift of the lay patron, whose deed of donation is an absolute investiture of the clerk, without presentation to the bishop or any other ceremony. Presentatives are churches originally founded in the same manner by a lay patron, and which, though at first, donatives, were by encroachment by the bishops subjected to presentation to them for their examination, [20] admission, or refusal. The reasons of refusal, are, however, examinable by the temporal courts on an action of Quare impedit, if brought by the patron. 2 Inst. 631. Collatives are those remnants of the old parishes, left after the King and great men had taken off their manors, the right of collating to which, is by immemorial custom, vested in the bishop. Of the donative and presentative church, the lay founder is patron; a right acquired by the acts of foundation (fundi-datio) and endowment (donatio). Of the collative church the bishop is patron, because he is quasi the founder of that, having built it himself, or been principally instrumental in procuring it to be built, or applied to the purpose of religion. See 1 Bl. 111, 112, 113. 2 Bl. 21, 22, 23, 25. 3 Inst. 201.

Having investigated the nature of the several kinds of churches and shewn the origin of the rights of patronage, it remains to enquire what these rights are. 1st. Nomination, or the right of naming the clerk. 2nd. Donation or induction, which is the investing with actual possession. 3rd. Visitation, which is the superintending his conduct after he is in possession. The latter is the object of the present enquiry; as it includes deprivation; which is only one of the higher degrees of punishment exercisable by the visitor. So said my Lord Holt, in the case of the Bishop of St Davids v. Lucy. Salk. 134. “By allowing his power to visit, all is admitted; for he that may visit, may deprive as well as censure, these being but several degrees of ecclesiastical punishment, and by the 26 Henry VIII., and the 1 El. c. 1. the only power given to the ecclesiastical commissioners was to visit [21] without a word of deprivation, yet they were always allowed a power to deprive.” So that the visitor of the church, whoever he be, is the person empowered to deprive the incumbent. With respect therefore to the right of visitation, as it is one of the rights of patronage arising from foundation and endowment, so it will, in general, be found coupled with them. Thus in collative churches, the bishop alone visits, he having, in some degree, been the founder of the church. In a donative church, the patron is visitor, because he originally founded the church, and so its constitution is the work of his hands; a point which I shall presently incontestably prove. In presentative churches indeed, the right of continuing to superintend, or in other words to visit, seems to have been encroached on, when the right of approving the nominee was first acquired to the bishop. 1 Mod. 12. It might, perhaps, be thought that if the bishop was the proper person to judge of the fitness of the clerk, he would be the proper person to judge also how long that fitness continued. But whatever may be the cause why the presentative church varies, in this instance, from the general rule, “that the right of visitation follows the foundation,” is immaterial, because it will be shown that our churches are donatives, to the visitation of which, therefore, I shall confine my future enquiries. Lord Holt, in his argument in the case of Philips v. Bury, Holt’s Rep. 724, expressed himself in these words: “But private and particular corporations for charity, founded and endowed by private persons, are subject to the private government of those who erect them; and [22] therefore if there be no visitor appointed by the founder, I am of opinion that the law doth appoint the founder and his heirs to be visitors. The founder and his heirs are patrons, and not to be guided by the common known laws of the kingdom. But such corporations are, as to their own affairs, to be governed by the particular laws and constitutions assigned by the founder. It was said, the common law doth not appoint a visitation at all; I am of another opinion; the law doth, in defect of a particular appointment, make the founder visitor; if he is silent during his own time, the right will descend to his heirs. Yelv. 65. and 2 Cro. 60. So 8 Edward III., 70 and 8 Ass. 29. So that patronage and visitation are necessary consequences, one upon another. For this visitorial power was not introduced by any canons or constitutions ecclesiastical; it is an appointment of law; it arises from the property which the founder had in the lands assigned to support the charity; and so he is the author of the charity; the law gives him and his heirs a visitorial power, that is, an authority to inspect their actions, and regulate their behavior, as he pleaseth. Indeed, where the poor are not incorporated, according to the case in 10 Co. there is no visitorial power; because the interest of the revenue is not vested in them; but where they are incorporated, there, to prevent all perverting of the charity, there is by law a visitorial power; and it being a creature of the founder’s own, it is reason he and his heirs should have that power, unless they please to devolve it elsewhere.

“In our old books, deprived by patron and deprived [23] by visitor, are all one. For it is a benefit that naturally springs out of foundation; and it is in his power to transfer it to another.” And so in 2 Jur. Eccles. 473. by Twisten. “Whenever there is a cure of souls, the church is visitable, either by the bishop if it belongs to him; if to a layman he must make delegates, if to the King my Lord Keeper does it.” And he cites 1 Mod. 12. And the author adds, “I presume the Judge, in this case, is to be understood as to the man’s making delegates, to mean if he finds himself unequal to his duty, then he is bound in conscience to delegate commissioners qualified for it; but not that he may not do it himself, though he be really able; for it is to be observed, if his commissioners do otherwise than he is convinced in his conscience they ought, he may still undertake and determine it himself, according to conscience, and as he may so take it up. I conceive, no reason can be shewn, why he cannot do it in the first instance; for his commissioners are but in aid of him, and I conceive, in this case, his power, though more absolute, may be compared to the Ordinary’s authority, who, though ordinarily he judges by his Chancellor, or other official; yet he may sit himself and determine matters within his limited jurisdiction, if he pleases, and have, as is to be presumed, abilities.” Moore, 765. Fayrechild v. Gayre. “Pasch. 3. Jac. En bank le roy, sur un special verdict suit adjudged que l’incumbent dun benefice donative poit resigner a son patron, et que il esteant del foundacon le Patron est auxi de son Visitation et correction, et l’ordinary n’ada ove luy. 8 Ass. 29. and 32.” S. C. Cro. Jac. [24] 63. S. P. l Mod. 90. Dean of Ferne’s case, Dav. 44. a. 46. b. 47. a. And by Co. Lit. 344. a. “A church parochial may be Donative and exempt from all ordinary jurisdiction, and the incumbent may resign to the patron, and not to the Ordinary; neither can the Ordinary Visit, but the Patron by commissioners to be appointed by him.” So that this much is certain, that in donative churches the right of visitation is in the Patron. And here we must note that in the case of the King’s donatives, he does not visit in person, but may make commissioners for that purpose; and if he does not make them his Chancellor acts ex officio for him. Thus by F. N. B. 42 a. “The King may have a prohibition directed to the Ordinary, that he shall not visit the hospitals, which are of the King’s foundation, or of the foundation of his predecessors; because that the Chancellor of England ought to visit them and no other. And so is it of the King’s or his progenitors free chapels, no Ordinary shall visit them, but the Chancellor of England.” S. P. Dav. 26. b. “If the King doth found a church Hospital, or free chapel, donative, he may exempt the same from ordinary jurisdiction, and then his Chancellor shall visit the same. Nay, if the King do found the same without any special exemption, the Ordinary is not, but the King’s Chancellor, to visit the same.” Co. Lit. 344. a. But “the King may, if he pleases, make a special commission.” 6. H. 4. 14. Dy. 273. As in the case of Waldron v. Pollard, Dyer 273, the King gave a commission to visit his donative. So in the case of the college of William and Mary in this country, which is of royal foundation, [25] the King did by his charter appoint commissioners for the purpose of visitation, and prescribed the rules for keeping up a perpetual succession of them. So that it appears that the patron of a donative is visitor of right, and where the King is patron, he may appoint commissioners, but if he does not, his Chancellor visits ex officio for him. And indeed, it is worthy the attention of this court, that if as an ecclesiastical court they should take on them to visit our clergy, and it should appear they are not visitable for any ecclesiastical court, the error is not excused by the law in this as in other cases, where a judge happens to be mistaken in his opinion, but he incurs the penalties of a premunire, which are a forfeiture of property, outlawry, and perpetual imprisonment of the person. These were first introduced by the stat. 16. R. 2. for drawing causes of temporal cognisance (and all cases of advowsons are tryable by the temporal courts only) “in curiam Romanam vel alibi.” The word “alibi” has been construed to extend to any ecclesiastical court. Thus in 12 Co. 38. “For as it was resolved by all the Justices, Pasch. 4 Jac. reg. est contra coronam et dignitatem regiam, when any ecclesiastical Judge doth usurp upon the temporal law, because, as in all those writs it appeareth, the interest or cause of the subject is drawn ad aliud examen, that is, when the subject ought to have his cause ended by the common law, where unto by birthright he is inheritable, he is drawn in aliud examen (viz) to be decided and determined by the ecclesiastical law; and this is truly said contra coronam et dignitatem regiam. And this appears by [26] all the prohibitions (which are infinite) which have been directed to the high commissioners and others, after the said act. By 1 Eliz. a fortiori, he who offends in a premunire shall be said to offend contra coronam et dignitatem regiam. And this in effect answers to all the aforesaid objections; but yet other particular answers shall be given to every of them.

As to the third, although the court by force of high commission is the court of the King, yet their proceedings are ecclesiastical: and for this, if they usurp upon the temporal law, this is the same offence which was before the said act of 10 Eliz. For this was the end of all the antient acts, that the temporal law shall not in any manner be emblemished by any ecclesiastical proceedings.

As to the fourth, although it be a new court, yet the antient statutes extend to it within this word alibi,and divers new Bishopricks were erected in the time of Henry VIII., and yet there was never any question but that the antient acts of premunire, extended to them.” And in Bro. Abr. I find it expressly determined to be a premunire to call the incumbent of a donative before an ecclesiastical visitation. “Per aliquos benefice donative per le patron tantum est lay chose et levesque ne visitera, et ideo ned deprivera, et donque sil mella in ce il est in le case de premunire, et in ce case suit Barloo evesque de Bathe tempore. E. 6. Et suit arct de obteiner un pardon, eo que il avoit deprive le deane de Welles que suit un donative per letters patents le ray per acte de parlament ent sait, tamen 8. E. 3. supra ne adjudge. (8 Ass. p 29.”) Bro. Abr. Premunire 21. So that my conclusions [27] from the premises, so far as necessary in the present question are, That donative churches, being originally founded by a lay-patron, and being still subject to his donation, are likewise subject to his sole visitation, the ecclesiastical judge having no right to intermeddle: and again, That if the patron be a subject, he may visit either in person or by commissioners; if he be the King, he may also appoint commissioners, but if he make no appointment, the Chancellor visits ex officio.

Our last enquiry is, To what class belong the churches of our government? are they collatives? are they presentatives? or are they donatives? Collatives they are not: because these were described as having existed immemorially, and been all that time disposed of by the bishop, which immemorial usage had confirmed the right in law. But our parishes pretend to no immemorial existence, for that would make them older than our government itself: they have been erected by acts of Assembly long within memory, to be found by any one who will recur to our records. Nor was there ever an instance of collation to one of them by a bishop. “If an act of Parliament make a particular district a particular separate distinct parish, the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical court does not attach upon it, for this clear reason, that it was not such immemorially. Parish St. John, Clerkenwell, 9 Geo. 2. B. R.” 2 Jur. Eccl. 348. Neither are our churches of the presentative kind because of these the distinguishing characteristic is, that, though of lay foundation, yet the bishop has acquired a right of having the clerk presented for his [28]examination, admission or refusal. But no such right was ever pretended in our churches, nor was there ever an instance in them of presentation to a bishop. But they are of the donative kind. These were said, 1st. to have been founded by laymen; 2nd. not to be subject to presentation to a bishop; 3rd. to lie purely in the gift of the patron. Now let us see if these characters are not applicable to our churches. The act of Assembly, 1661, c. 1. directs that a church shall be built in every parish, and c. 2. that the expenses of building and keeping it in repair, provision for the poor, and maintenance of the minister, be levied on the people of the parish; c. 3. that there be a glebe laid out in every parish, and a convenient house built for the abode of the minister; and that a maintenance be provided for him, which shall be worth eighty pounds per annum, besides his perquisites and glebe. The act of 1696, c. 11. instead of the £80 given the minister by that of 1661, c. 3. gives him sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco, besides his perquisites, to be levied “by the vestries in their respective parishes”; and lastly the act of 1748, c. 34. (old ed’ns) sect. 1. confirms this salary to them, to be levied by the vestry “upon the titheable persons in their respective parishes”; and sect. 5. directs that the glebe shall contain two hundred acres of good land at the least, and that there shall be built on it a convenient mansion house, kitchen, barn, stable, dairy, meat house, cornhouse, and garden, the expenses of which are to be levied on the titheable persons in the parishes. Here it might be thought prima facie perhaps, that as the [29] parishioners pay the money they are the founders and endowers. But a little attention will, I think, discover this to be a fallacy. The parishioners are indeed the persons ordered to furnish the money; but the erection of the parishes and gift of the salary, or in other words, the foundation and endowment of the church, is the act of the legislature. They direct an officer to levy sixteen thousand pounds of tobacco on the titheable persons of the parish. As soon as it is in his hands it is the money of the public, and then they order him to pay it to the minister of the parish, just as if the founder of a church should endow it with an annuity which, by his charter of donation, should be payable out of his manor of Blackacre; his tenants of that manor, though they furnished the money, would hardly be considered as the founders and endowers. Suppose the legislature, instead of directing the payment of these expenses to be levied on the particular parishioners, had ordered the payment out of the public purse; the foundation and endowment would surely then have been their acts: but what difference can it produce, if instead of ordering the parish collector to pay the money to the treasurer, and him again to the minister, they adopt the shorter method of making the collector pay it immediately to the minister. Our own country furnishes a decisive refutation of this notion. The college of William and Mary is endowed with duties on skins, furs, liquors, tobaccos, paid by the exporters and importers, though given by the legislature. Yet was it never supposed, that that college was founded or endowed by the exporters or [30] importers of these commodities. As little then can the parishioners, though the parochial taxes be assessed on them, be called the founders and endowers of our churches. The truth is, the parish is erected, the church and its soil given, and also the endowment, by the legislature, or in other words by the community whom they represent. Now that is a civil, not an ecclesiastical body. The churches are therefore of lay foundation. Again, if we consider the community, as made up of King and People, the King will then be the patron of our churches, it being a known branch of the royal prerogative, that where the King and his subjects are joint founders, the rights of patronage vest in the King. 1 Bl.481. Or if we consider it in a constitutional point of view, the same consequence will be evolved. For wherever an act of Parliament or of Assembly erects a new office, without prescribing the particular mode of appointing the officer, it belongs to the King to make the appointment. And for this reason; that possessing the executive power of the laws, it is his peculiar duty to see each act carried into execution, which cannot be unless an officer is appointed. 1 Bl. 272. On this principle, is almost every officer in Great Britain, as well as in Virginia, appointed by the crown; the acts erecting the offices, never prescribing the mode of appointment unless where they mean to give it from the crown. If then our acts of Assembly, erecting cures of souls, and declaring that they shall be given to ecclesiastics of a certain sect, have not said by whom the nomination shall be, it will follow that the King, who is to see the law executed, must nominate persons [31] for that purpose. We have but two acts relative to this matter. The act of 1661, c. 4. says that a minister, producing to the Governor letters of ordination from some bishop in England, and subscribing, &c. the Governor is to induct them into “any parish that shall make presentation of him.” This law, without doubt, gave the nomination to the parishioners collectively, though it preserved to the crown the right of donation or actual investiture. But the impropriety and inconvenience of popular elections of priests, and the unfitness of the people to judge of their qualifications, had soon caused the vestries to usurp this right, and even their unreadiness to choose where the choice was to be followed by immediate assessments for maintenance, together with the doubt at what time the King might interpose to supply the vacancy, induced the necessity of altering the constitution of the churches in this respect. In 1748, therefore, the right of nomination was restored to the crown, except for the first twelve months after an avoidance, during which it was given to the vestrymen of the parish. Act 1748, c. 34. (old ed’ns.) s. 7. “And whereas it is doubted how long the right of presentation of a minister to a parish, remains in the vestries in this colony: for settling that matter be it enacted, that the sole right of presentation shall be, and remain, in the several vestries, for and during the term of twelve months next after a vacancy shall happen in their respective parishes.” But perhaps it may be thought that the right of choosing, given by this act to the vestries in the first instance, is another mark of foundership; and if they are founders, of [32] course they are visitors. This must be answered by distinguishing between the act of nomination, which is given them for a twelve month, and of donation or induction, which is reserved to the crown, and is better expressed by the word investiture. Nomination is defined by Cowell to be “a power to appoint a clerk to a patron of a benefice.” And he says the word “invest, signifies to give possession. Others,” says he, “define it thus, investiture est in suum jus alicujus introductio, a giving livery of seisin or possession.” This, in donative churches, is effected by the single deed of donation, without other ceremony. “Donatives are given and fully possessed by the single donation of the patron in writing, without presentation, institution, or induction.” Gibs. 819. 1 Burn. Eccl. L. 154. And in collatives and presentatives it is effected by induction. “Induction is, by the canon law, called corporal possession, and is compared in the books of common law to livery and seisin, by which possession is given to temporal estates.” Gibs. 814. Burn. Eccl. L. 157. So that the right given the vestry is barely to name for one twelve month, whereas the crown, is on that nomination, to make the deed of donation, or give corporal possession. The act indeed for nomination, uses the presentation; the sense of which, as used in the ecclesiastical law, is to present to a bishop, and is in its nature and effect very different from nomination and for donation, it uses the word induction, which has indeed the same meaning of delivering actual possession, only that it is usually applied to the delivery of a different kind of church. However our legislators [33] of 1661, were not critics in the language of the law; and it matters not, since they have plainly enough signified what they meant. These rights of nomination and investiture are generally indeed in the same person, and are both exercised by one and the same act. Thus when in a donative, a patron makes a deed of donation, it is a nomination as well as an investiture. But they may be separated; as happens when the patron grants away the next avoidance. There the grantee has only the right of nominating; but the grantor or patron is to invest. For says Gibs. 794, “the right of nomination may be in one person, and the right of presentation in another. And this is where he who was seized of the advowson doth grant unto another and his heirs, that as often as the church becomes void, the grantee and his heirs shall nominate to the grantor and his heirs; who shall be bound to present accordingly. In such case it was agreed by the whole court in the case of Shirley and Underhill, Mod. 894, that the nomination is the substance of the advowson, and the presentation no more than a ministerial interest.” 1 Burn. Eccl. L. 122. Now this is precisely the case between our vestries and the crown under the act of Assembly. The King being considered as the founder and patron of the church, if nothing had been said, would have possessed both rights of nomination and vestiture. But the acts give the vestries, for one twelve month, the right of nominating to the Governor, the person whom he is to induct or invest with possession. It is similar to the case of sheriffs and inspectors, who are nominated by the court, [34] but commissioned or invested with their office by the Governor. So in the case of a clerk, it is not the nomination by the vestry, but the Governor’s investiture which puts him into possession, and entitles him to the temporalities of his cure. So that while the act takes from the King, pro tempore, and transfers to the vestry, the right of nomination, which was one of the rights incident to his patronage, it leaves him the ensigns of that right, to wit, investiture. And still the estate in law which was in the King, is made to pass from him by his act of investiture, and not from the vestry by their nomination. So that like the case before cited of the grant of a next avoidance, though the nomination be in the grantee, yet the presentation to the bishop, if it be presentative, or the deed of donation, if it be donative, must be by the patron. He still continues the patron, and he, not the grantee, possesses the right of visitation. Thus then it may be stated in fewer words. The King is the patron of all our churches. The rights of patrons are 1st. Nomination. 2nd. Investiture. 3rd. Visitation. Only one of these rights, viz. nomination, was taken away, and that but for a limited time. The other two, of vestiture and visitation, were not touched, and consequently still remain in him.

We may safely, therefore conclude that our churches are donatives, because they wear the three characteristics of donatives. 1. They are of lay foundation. 2. They are not subject to presentation to a bishop. 3. They lie in the gift of the patron. That patron is the King, and though one [35] right of patronage, viz. nomination, is taken away pro tempore, yet the others, of vestiture and visitation, still remain in him. The latter is the power now called into exercise; and his majesty having never been pleased to appoint commissioners for that purpose, it is to be exercised by his Chancellor here; that is by the members of this honorable court who possess the powers of a Chancellor: not indeed sitting on this bench of chancery, but as a court of visitation at any other time or place, at which you shall think proper to call the incumbent before you.

Thomas Jefferson
June 11. 1772
Williamsburgh

July 24 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

The Library is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office.

The Library preserves and provides access to a rich, diverse and enduring source of knowledge to inform, inspire and engage you in your intellectual and creative endeavors.

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I encourage you to visit the Library of Congress in person in Washington, D.C., explore the Library online from wherever you are and connect with us on social media.

Sincerely, Carla Hayden Librarian of Congress https://www.loc.gov/

“…in the event of a national catastrophe through which citizens must depend on the providence of God whom established the foundations of this world, it shall be determined by manifest destiny and confirmed in the citizenry who is best fit to lead the nation and the world from its crises and whom shall supervise the restructuring of world governments and will oversee world governments as led by Providence and confirmed  by miracles signs and wonders.… ”

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Inquiries from news organizations and other media may be directed and handled in person through the same address.

American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

If you have specific questions, please Ask a Librarian

Dear citizens greetings and salutations on behalf of Mary of Maryland the White House Administration and all US Law Enforcement the Department of Justice and service branches of the new  USPHS the United States Public Health Service Department of Defense

Be ready and prepared at all times for people who would use the conspiracy of lies to brainwash you. Keep sober-minded.   Please do not drink and drive or play with fire or start mayhem for any reason.

Try to enjoy yourself every day at work at school or in your summer vacation and create something new every day working your mind and developing your talents and skills.

Remember to control your media and stay away from Trump/Obama gatherings and political things that pretend these men are in power.  Trump & Obama are not in power and are stumbling blocks and so is all their media, news and all political initiatives and legislative writings associated with them.

The men who control conspiracy of lies media daily change and are subject to the processes of justice.

Both Trump & Obama and other old names in US Politics are control points for enemies of the state foreign and domestic to get into your minds, hearts and pocket books so be careful and aware of all media and be assured that the justice processes are working on your behalf.

Call the White House if you have any questions.

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum  nom de Plume JC Angelcraft author of the Nine Needs all Humans Have

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Day 2 The Writings and Letters of Thomas Jefferson for the people of the United States of America

To James Ogilvie1 Monticello, Feb. 20, 1771.

Dear Ogilvie,

I wrote you a line from Wmsburgh last October; but lest that may have miscarried I take this oppty of repeating what was material in that. On receipt of your letter and, oh shame! of your only letter, of March 28, 1770, which came not to hand till August, we took proper measures for prevailing on the commissary to withdraw his opposition.

But lest you should be uneasy in your situation in the mean time I directed mr T. Adams by the means of his partners Perkins and Brown to let you know they would answer any calls from you. In this your friend mr Walker insisted on joining me. In October I transmitted to the commissary a certificate of your conduct in life, on which he promised to write in your favor by Neeks, and tho I did not see the letter I expect he did. By the same oppty I wrote to you inclosing a duplicate of the certificate of which you might avail yourself if the commissary should fail us again. About the same time I wrote from Wmsburgh to a gentleman of the vestry in Orange to secure for you a vacancy which had happened in that parish by the death of Martin.

I have had no answer, but the parish is still vacant, which gives me hopes it is kept for you. Mr Maury incumbent in Fredericksville parish (of which I was when you were here) has a tempting offer from another quarter.

I know not whether he will accept of it. If he should we shall do for you all that can be done in your absence. But for god’s sake let not that be a moment longer than is of absolute necessity.

Your settlement here would make your friends happy, & I think would be agreeable to yourself. Your Dulcinea is in health. Her brother T. Strachan is settled with Y. Walker for life. Another reason for her and you to wish for a residence with us.

He is wishing to take to himself a wife; and nothing obstructs it but the unfeeling temper of a parent who delays, perhaps refuses to approve her daughter’s choice. I too am in that way; and have still greater difficulties to encounter not from the forwardness of parents, nor perhaps want of feeling in the fair one, but from other causes as unpliable to my wishes as these.

Since you left us I was unlucky enough to lose the house in which we lived, and in which all it’s contents were consumed. A very few books, two or three beds &c were with difficulty saved from the flames.

I have lately removed to the mountain from whence this is dated, and with which you are not unacquainted. I have here but one room, which, like the cobblers, serves me for parlour for kitchen and hall. I may add, for bedchamber and study too.

My friends sometimes take a temperate dinner with me and then retire to look for beds elsewhere. I have hope however of getting more elbow room this summer.

But be this as may happen, whether my tenements be great or small, homely or elegant they will always receive you with a hearty welcome.

If any thing should obstruct your setting out immediately for Virginia I would beg the favor of you to send the things I asked of you to purchase by some careful captain coming on James river.

Such of them as were for my buildings, or for house keeping I am particularly in want of. Nothing material occurs relative to the health and fortunes of your friends here.

They are well in both as far as I can recollect them. I conclude my epistle with every wish for your felicity which friendship can inspire. Adieu and believe me to be yours sincerely,

Thomas Jefferson 1771

“inscription for an african slave”

1771. Shores there are, bless’d shores for us remain, And favor’d isles with golden fruitage crown’s Where tufted flow’rets paint the verdant plain, Where ev’ry breeze shall med’cine every wound. There the stern tyrant that embitters life, Shall vainly suppliant, spread his asking hand; There shall we view the billow’s raging strife, Aid the kind breast, and waft his boat to land. Ben. Waller C. C. Cur April 11, 1771 John Randolph

Agreement with john randolph2 April 11th, 1771.

It is agreed between John Randolph, Esq., of the city of Williamsburg, and Thomas Jefferson, of the County of Albemarle, that in case the said John shall survive the said Thomas, that the Exr’s or Adm’rs of the said Thomas shall deliver to the said John 800 pounds sterling of the books of the said Thomas, to be chosen by the said John or if not books sufficient, the deficiency to be made up in money: And in case the [9] said Thomas should survive the said John, that the Executors of the said John shall deliver to the said Thomas the violin which the said John brought with him into Virginia, together with all his music composed for the violin, or in lieu thereof, if destroyed by any accident, 60 pounds sterling worth of books of the said John, to be chosen by the said Thomas.

In witness thereof the said John and Thomas have hereunto subscribed their names and affixed their seals the day and year above written. John Randolph (L. S.) Th. Jefferson (L. S.) Sealed and delivered in presence of: G. Wythe, Tho’s Everand, P. Henry, Jr. Will Drew, Richard Starke, Wm. Johnson, Ja. Steptoe. Virginia, S. S. At the general court held at the capital on the 12th day of April, 1771, this agreement was acknowledged by John Randolph and Thomas Jefferson, parties thereto, and ordered to be recorded. Teste,  Ben. Waller, C. C. Cur.

Thomas Jefferson May 11, 1771 Williamsburgh Inglis Long

 

July 24 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

The Library is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office.

The Library preserves and provides access to a rich, diverse and enduring source of knowledge to inform, inspire and engage you in your intellectual and creative endeavors.

Whether you are new to the Library of Congress or an experienced researcher, we have a world-class staff ready to assist you online and in person.

I encourage you to visit the Library of Congress in person in Washington, D.C., explore the Library online from wherever you are and connect with us on social media.

Sincerely, Carla Hayden Librarian of Congress https://www.loc.gov/

“…in the event of a national catastrophe through which citizens must depend on the providence of God whom established the foundations of this world, it shall be determined by manifest destiny and confirmed in the citizenry who is best fit to lead the nation and the world from its crises and whom shall supervise the restructuring of world governments and will oversee world governments as led by Providence and confirmed  by miracles signs and wonders.… ”

U.S. Department of Justice
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20530-0001

The Department may be contacted by phone at the following:

  • Department Comment Line: 202-353-1555
  • Department of Justice Main Switchboard: 202-514-2000
  • TTY/ASCII/TDD: 800-877-8339

Inquiries from news organizations and other media may be directed and handled in person through the same address.

American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

If you have specific questions, please Ask a Librarian

Dear citizens greetings and salutations on behalf of Mary of Maryland the White House Administration and all US Law Enforcement the Department of Justice and service branches of the new  USPHS the United States Public Health Service Department of Defense

Be ready and prepared at all times for people who would use the conspiracy of lies to brainwash you. Keep sober-minded.   Please do not drink and drive or play with fire or start mayhem for any reason.

Try to enjoy yourself every day at work at school or in your summer vacation and create something new every day working your mind and developing your talents and skills.

Remember to control your media and stay away from Trump/Obama gatherings and political things that pretend these men are in power.  Trump & Obama are not in power and are stumbling blocks and so is all their media, news and all political initiatives and legislative writings associated with them.

The men who control conspiracy of lies media daily change and are subject to the processes of justice.

Both Trump & Obama and other old names in US Politics are control points for enemies of the state foreign and domestic to get into your minds, hearts and pocket books so be careful and aware of all media and be assured that the justice processes are working on your behalf.

Call the White House if you have any questions.

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum  nom de Plume JC Angelcraft author of the Nine Needs all Humans Have

https://www.facebook.com/S.A.R.Jose.Maria.Chavira.MS.Adagio.1st

http://healthcareinsuranceretirementandauditcorporation.wordpress.com/9-needs-therapy/

Day 1 The Writings and Letters of Thomas Jefferson for the people of the United States of America

Written to Thomas Adams 1 Monticello, Feb. 20, 1771.

Dear Sir, —Not expecting to have the pleasure of seeing you again before you leave the country, I inclose you an order on the inspectors at Shockoe for two hhds(a word of measurement) of tobo (Tobacco)  which I consign to you, and give you also the trouble of shipping as I am too far from the spot to do it myself.

They are to be laid out in the purchase of the articles on the back hereof.

You will observe that part of these articles (such as are licensed by the association) are to be sent at any event. Another part (being prohibited) are only to be sent if the tea act should be repealed before you get home; if it is not, you will observe a third class to be sent instead of those which are prohibited.

I am not without expectation that the repeal may take place. I believe the parliament want nothing but a colorable motive to adopt this measure.

The conduct of our brethren of New York affords them this. You will observe by my invoice that I have supposed my tobo. to clear me £50. sterl. per hhd; should it be less, dock the invoice of such articles as you think I may get in the country.

In consequence of your recommendation I wrote to Waller last June for £45 sterl. worth of books inclosing him a bill of exchange to that amount. Having written to Benson Pearson for another parcel of nearly the same amount, I directed him to purchase them also of Waller. I acquainted both of the necessity of my situation brought on by the unlucky loss of my library, and pressed them most earnestly to lose not a day in sending them; yet I have heard not a tittle from either gentlemen.

I mentioned to you that I had become one of several securities for a gentleman of my acquaintance lately engaged in trade. I hope and indeed hear he is doing very well; I would not therefore take any step to wound his credit; but as far as it can possibly be done without affecting that, I must beg you to have me secured. It can surely do no mischief to see that his remittances are placed to the credit of the money for which we stand engaged, and not of any new importations of goods made afterwards. I must rely entirely on your friendly assistance in the matter, which I assure you gives me concern, as should my friend prove unsuccessful, (and ill foe. may render any person unsuccessful,) it might sweep away the whole of my little fortune.

I must once more trouble you for my friend Ogilvie. The commissary promised to write in his favor to the bishop by Neeks.I did not see his letter, and with this gentleman I believe no farther than I see. I wrote by the same opportunity to Ogilvie and apprised him of the commissary’s engagement. Should your route to the ship be thro’ Williamsburgh I would trouble you to know whether he has in truth written or not.The inclosed letter to Ogilvie you will please to deliver with our most earnest advice that he lose not a day in coming over.

One farther favor and I am done; to search the Herald’s office for the arms of my family. I have what I have been told were the family arms, but on what authority I know not. It is possible there may be none. If so, I would with your assistance become a purchaser, having Sterne’s word for it that a coat of arms may be purchased as cheap as any other coat

The things I have desired you to purchase for me I would beg you to hasten, particularly the Clavichord, which I have directed to be purchased in Hamburgh, because they are better made there, and much cheaper. Leave me a line before you go away with instructions how to direct to you.

Thomas Jefferson Feb. 20, 1771 Monticello James Ogilvie

July 24 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

The Library is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office.

The Library preserves and provides access to a rich, diverse and enduring source of knowledge to inform, inspire and engage you in your intellectual and creative endeavors.

Whether you are new to the Library of Congress or an experienced researcher, we have a world-class staff ready to assist you online and in person.

I encourage you to visit the Library of Congress in person in Washington, D.C., explore the Library online from wherever you are and connect with us on social media.

Sincerely, Carla Hayden Librarian of Congress https://www.loc.gov/

“…in the event of a national catastrophe through which citizens must depend on the providence of God whom established the foundations of this world, it shall be determined by manifest destiny and confirmed in the citizenry who is best fit to lead the nation and the world from its crises and whom shall supervise the restructuring of world governments and will oversee world governments as led by Providence and confirmed  by miracles signs and wonders.… ”

U.S. Department of Justice
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20530-0001

The Department may be contacted by phone at the following:

  • Department Comment Line: 202-353-1555
  • Department of Justice Main Switchboard: 202-514-2000
  • TTY/ASCII/TDD: 800-877-8339

Inquiries from news organizations and other media may be directed and handled in person through the same address.

American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

If you have specific questions, please Ask a Librarian

Dear citizens greetings and salutations on behalf of Mary of Maryland the White House Administration and all US Law Enforcement the Department of Justice and service branches of the new  USPHS the United States Public Health Service Department of Defense

Be ready and prepared at all times for people who would use the conspiracy of lies to brainwash you. Keep sober-minded.   Please do not drink and drive or play with fire or start mayhem for any reason.

Try to enjoy yourself every day at work at school or in your summer vacation and create something new every day working your mind and developing your talents and skills.

Remember to control your media and stay away from Trump/Obama gatherings and political things that pretend these men are in power.  Trump & Obama are not in power and are stumbling blocks and so is all their media, news and all political initiatives and legislative writings associated with them.

The men who control conspiracy of lies media daily change and are subject to the processes of justice.

Both Trump & Obama and other old names in US Politics are control points for enemies of the state foreign and domestic to get into your minds, hearts and pocket books so be careful and aware of all media and be assured that the justice processes are working on your behalf.

We have taken back the United States of America and we ask for your patience and support.  Call the White House if you have any questions.

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum  nom de Plume JC Angelcraft author of the Nine Needs all Humans Have

https://www.facebook.com/S.A.R.Jose.Maria.Chavira.MS.Adagio.1st

http://healthcareinsuranceretirementandauditcorporation.wordpress.com/9-needs-therapy/

 

Updated for July 19 2017 Transcript of Declaration of Independence (Rough Draft)

During the days of the Revolution, the King’s men carried through human sacrifices to keep the colonies in subjugation of slavery through terror, sorcery, wizardry supported by the british military.  Executions of common people they called them, as well as traitors and treasonous men, women and children to justify there deaths.

During the Mason Holocaust Mason Felipe Calderon justified the executions of many common citizens.  Felipe Calderon even murdered American Federal Officers without any impunity by Barrack Obama who did nothing as both Obama and Calderon were of the Fraternal Order of Masons and in agreement against any opposing force that would investigate their international religious fraternal order.

Calderon like Obama and many others were Masons of the highest levels of secrecy and admitted 33 degree Mason High Priests Grand Master Wizards.

Pretending to be men of God as public figures in presenting state videos,  these men were worshippers of Idols Moloch and Chumash and who sacrificed children and adults just like the Tyrant King of the movie the patriot,

As a people of God we have under various forms of government called by many different names resisted governments run by religious men who sacrifice humans for political control and power and whose aim was to keep us in slavery.

We have fought the demons of slavery throughout history and the same human sacrifice religions called by different names to regain our freedom and restore government and the right to worship God as God should be worshipped, in peace and without violence

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum

https://www.facebook.com/S.A.R.Jose.Maria.Chavira.MS.Adagio.1st

Thomas Jefferson, June 1776, Rough Draft of the Declaration of Independence at the Library of Congress https://www.loc.gov/item/mtjbib000156/

Note: Italicized words or phrases were omitted in the final draft .  Bracketed words or phrases were added to the original draft and appear in the final draft.

A Declaration by the Representatives
of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in
General Congress assembled.

WHEN in the Course of human Events it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth the separate & equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident: that all Men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with inherent and* [certain] inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, & the pursuit of happiness: that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abolish it, & to institute new government, laying it’s foundation on such principles, & organizing it’s powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety & happiness.

Prudence indeed will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light & transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.

But when a long train of abuses & usurpations begun at a distinguished period and pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty to throw off such government, & to provide new guards for their future security.

Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; & such is now the necessity which constrains them to expunge [alter] their former systems of government.

The history of the present king of Great Britain is a history of unremitting [repeated] injuries & usurpations, among which appears no solitary fact to contradict the uniform tenor of the rest but all have [all having]in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this let facts be submitted to a candid world for the truth of which we pledge a faith yet unsullied by falsehood. (end of the first scanned page of the rouph draft)

HE has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome & necessary for the public good.

HE has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate & pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; & when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

HE has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a right inestimable to them, & formidable to tyrants only.

HE has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

HE has dissolved representative houses repeatedly & continually for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

HE has refused for a long time after such dissolutions to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise, the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without & convulsions within.

HE has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, & raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

HE has suffered [obstructed] the administration of justice totally to cease in some of these states [by] refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

HE has made our judges dependant on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, & the amount & paiment  (payment)  of their salaries.

HE has erected a multitude of new offices by a self assumed power and sent hither swarms of new officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

HE has kept among us in times of peace standing armies and ships of warwithout the consent of our legislatures.

HE has affected to render the military independent of, & superior to the civil power.

HE has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions & unacknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

FOR quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

FOR protecting them by a mock-trial from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states

FOR cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:

FOR imposing taxes on us without our consent:

FOR depriving us [in many cases] of the benefits of trial by jury

FOR transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences:

FOR abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging it’s boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these states [colonies]:

FOR taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments:

FOR suspending our own legislatures, & declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in allcases (all  cases)  whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here withdrawing his governors, and declaring us out of his allegiance & protection. [by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.]

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, & destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation & tyranny already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy [scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, & totally] unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends & brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has [excited domestic insurection (insurrection) among us, & has] endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, & conditions of existence.

He has incited treasonable insurrections of our fellow-citizens, with the allurements of forfeiture & confiscation of our property.

He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating it’s most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobium  (opprobrium) of INFIDEL Powers, is the warfare of the CHRISTIAN king of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce. And that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people on whom he also obtruded them: thus paying off former crimes committed against the LIBERTIES of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the LIVES of another.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injuries.

A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a [free] people who mean to be free. Future ages will scarcely believe that the hardiness of one man adventured, within the short compass of twelve years only, to lay a foundation so broad & so undisguised for tyranny over a people fostered & fixed in principles of freedom.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend a [an unwarrantable] jurisdiction over these our states [us]. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration & settlement here, no one of which could warrant so strange a pretension: that these were effected at the expense of our own blood & treasure, unassisted by the wealth or the strength of Great Britain: that in constituting indeed our several forms of government, we had adopted one common king, thereby laying a foundation for perpetual league & amity with them: but that submission to their parliament was no part of our constitution, nor ever in idea, if history may be credited: and, we [have] appealed to their native justice and magnanimity [and we have conjured them by] as well as to the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations which were likely to [would inevitably] interrupt our connection and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice & of consanguinity, and when occasions have been given them, by the regular course of their laws, of removing from their councils the disturbers of our harmony, they have, by their free election, re-established them in power. At this very time too they are permitting their chief magistrate to send over not only soldiers of our common blood, but Scotch & foreign mercenaries to invade & destroy us. These facts have given the last stab to agonizing affection, and manly spirit bids us to renounce forever these unfeeling brethren. We must endeavor to forget our former love for them, and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends. We might have been a free and a great people together; but a communication of grandeur & of freedom it seems is below their dignity. Be it so, since they will have it. The road to happiness & to glory is open to us too. We will tread it apart from them, and [We must therefore] acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our eternal separation! [and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.]

We therefore the representatives of the united States of America in General Congress assbled (assembled)   [appealing to the Judge of the World for the recititude  (rectitude) of our intentions] do in the name & by authority of the good people of these states [colonies] reject and renounce all allegiance & subjection(s) to the kings of Great Britain & all others who may hereafter claim by, through or under them: we utterly disolve  (dissolve) all political connection which may heretofore have subsisted between us & the people or parliment (parliament) of Great Britain: and finally we do assert and declare these colonies to be free and independent states,[solemly (solemnly) Publish and Declare that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are dissolved from allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved;] and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract allies, establish commerce, & do all other acts & things which independent states may of right do.

And for the support of this declaration, [with a firm reliance on the protection of divine providence] we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, & our sacred honor.

Source: Boyd, J.P. et al, editors. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950. Volume I page 426.

The White House Curator July 11 2017 Editor Jose Maria Chavira MS Adagio 1st nom de plume JC Angelcraft

Can the liberities of a Nation be secure when we have removed the conviction that they are a gift of God?

“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,  – Declaration of Independence

Visit Montecello and avoid TRUMP/OBAMA or any offensive incursions should you come across them.  Enjoy your heritage and let no Masons stand in your way

https://www.monticello.org/site/jefferson/quotations-jefferson-memorial

You can leave Messeges for Special Agent Chavira at the regular White House Number or send letters to Special Agent Chavira directy to the White House Address 1600 Pennsylvania Ave NW Washington D.C. 20500  Thank you.

Washington D.C.  July 4 2017  My fellow Americans, I apologize to the public and the world for the presence of Trump on various YouTube accounts and media venues  where he does not belong.

May his and Obama’s family relatives and friends be at peace and know they are not under my persecution that is dedicated to fighting paramilitaries and enemies of the state foreign and domestic.

May the families relatives and friends of former masons be at peace and pray for your country, yourselves, your children and the children who suffered due to the political religion of Masonry a highly religious organization that use to run the world.

May all families in the United States of America and around the world be at peace and I thank everyone for their support and for embracing Mary of Maryland the new Queen – a spiritually and intellectually gifted woman – who you can trust even with your children.  She is also known as Maria.

We are still in a media crises level 7 and in struggle against men with no faces but our freedom we have and my peace I give you.

Son Altesse Royale Jose Maria Chavira M.S. Adagio 1st Dominus dominorum est et rex regum et reginarum nom de plume JCAngelcraft

Resources fo students ( In all your research,  please Ignore paramilitary control points These control points are all news and media of former mason politicians and industrialists currently being used to control your minds and make you believe these men are in power.  This media was previously taped presented as real and live news and supported by lies by the enemies of state.  Please make sure to report all lies to the Department of Justice and according to your conscience and sense of duty to the sovereignty of the United States of America)

Library of Congress Encyclopedia of Arts & Data Base  http://www.loc.gov/performingarts/

George Washington’s Mount Vernon Digital Encyclopedia

NPS National Park Service  https://www.nps.gov/index.htm

Smithsonian Education http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/

NOAA Marine  Sanctuaries  http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/   

Profiles In Public Health LCDR Nancy Knight, Physician” transcript excerpts from 2007

https://officialgovernmentoftheunitedstatesofamerica.wordpress.com/u-s-emergency-management-agency/transcript-excerpts-from-2007/

General George Washington’s commitment to cross the Delaware River on Christmas 1776 foreshadowed the many hardships faced as well as the eventual victory of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.

At first glance, the decision to transport 2,400 Continental soldiers across an icy river in one night, directly into a severe winter storm of sleet and snow seems irrational.

Washington’s decision, however, was based on strategic motivation, understanding that the Continental Army desperately needed a victory after months of intense fighting with several significant defeats and no major victories.

Washington also understood that the element of surprise was the only way that he and his army stood a chance of defeating the highly trained Hessian mercenaries. On the morning of December 25, 1776, Continental soldiers woke up in their camps along the Delaware River to a frozen, snowy covered ground. Weather conditions worsened and temperatures continued to drop throughout the day.

Late in the afternoon, the Continentals left their tents and began to form along the river in anticipation of the night’s events.

Washington kept almost all of the details of the crossing a secret; as a result, none of the soldiers knew anything about their upcoming mission. Washington’s crossing of the Delaware River on December 25, 1776 allowed his army to strike the Hessians at Trenton the next morning.

Washington’s plan was to cross the river at night, march to the nearby town of Trenton, New Jersey, and attack the Hessian garrison right before dawn.

Time was Washington’s greatest enemy; to combat it his orders called for the various regiments to assemble at their designated crossing points no later than sunset.

The close proximity to the crossing points allowed the soldiers to begin the journey immediately after nightfall struck and complete the crossing no later than midnight.

Once across, Washington intended for the armies to reassemble and march approximately ten miles to Trenton, arriving there no later than five o’clock in the morning to achieve surprise.

Despite his meticulous planning, the schedule failed almost before it even began. (Map: Battle of Trenton) Many of the regiments did not arrive at the river until well after dark.

Additionally, a severe winter storm that included wind, rain, snow, hail, and sleet met the soldiers at the banks of the river significantly slowing their crossing. Many of the boats had to combat ice jams and unfavorable currents.

To make matters even worse, the extreme darkness caused by the storm made it hard for the boatmen to see the opposite shore. The necessity of using larger ferries to carry pieces of artillery across the river caused even more delays.

Washington crossed the river with John Glover’s Marblehead mariners and upon arrival debated whether or not to cancel the entire operation because it was more than three hours behind schedule.

Washington decided it was too costly to retreat and he painfully watched as his army continued to trickle across the river. The freezing and tired Continental Army assembled on the Jersey shore without any major debacles.

Once ready, Washington led his army on the road to Trenton. It was there that he secured the Continental Army’s first major military victory of the war. Without the determination, resiliency, and leadership exhibited by Washington while crossing the Delaware River the victory at Trenton would not have been possible.

Cody Lass

Texas Tech University https://www.ttu.edu/

Bibliography:

Fisher, David Hackett, Washington Crossing the Delaware (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004).

Higginbotham, Don, The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, 1763-1789 (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1983).

Middlekauf, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985).

Links:

Washington’s Crossing State Park

Washington Crossing the Delaware, Metropolitan Museum of Art

 

July 1 2017 Washington D.C.   The Library of Congress is the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, newspapers, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

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American Choral Music

The seventy-six works presented here are limited to a period beginning shortly after the Civil War and ending at 1922. The music selected reflects the diversity of choral music in the collections written during the later nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and includes accompanied music, a cappella, sacred and secular music, and works for mixed choirs, for women’s and men’s ensembles, and for children’s choruses.

American Choral Music is a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the Choral Directors Association (ACDA). In 2007, the ACDA and the Library of Congress began a collaborative effort to create this Web site devoted to choral music that would present music in the public domain, available for users to download. The site serves to highlight the collections of sheet music in the Library of Congress and to advance and promote the performance of choral music.

Twenty-three composers’ works are represented, five of whom are women. Amy Marcy Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A. Beach) was the first American woman to achieve widespread recognition as a composer. Mabel Wheeler Daniels composed The Desolate City, op. 21, among other significant works during her many stays as a Fellow at the MacDowell Colony. Margaret Ruthven Lang composed the song Ojalá,which brought her international attention at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Gena Branscombe was a conductor and composer whose hymn Arms that have Sheltered Us was adopted by the Royal Canadian Navy in 1960. Patty Stair was a composer, organist and conductor.

Many of the composers represented here were from the Second New England School and were influential in music education as well as composition. George Whitefield Chadwick, often credited as the “dean of American Music,” reorganized the New England Conservatory.

Chadwick influenced Daniel Gregory Mason, a composer known for both orchestral works and song cycles is represented, as is Horatio William Parker.

Parker became dean of the School of Music at Yale; many of his manuscripts reside in the Music Division. Another member of the New England School was John Knowles Paine, the first professor of music at Harvard, and a composer who established the first music department at an American university. Amy Beach, Arthur Foote, and Edward MacDowell were also members of the Second New England School.

Also represented is Dudley Buck, an organist, conductor, and founding director of the Brooklyn Apollo Club’s male chorus, and Harvey Bartlett Gaul, a student of Dudley Buck. William W. Gilchrist founded the Mendelssohn Club. Peter C. Lutkin was a composer instrumental in support of a cappella singing, and a founder of the American Guild of Organists.

African-American music is represented with the compositions of R. Nathaniel DettWill Marion Cook, and Harry Burleigh. Other notable composers are Henry F. GilbertArthur B. Whiting and Septimus Winner.

About Choral Music at the Library of Congress

The works in this presentation were selected from a variety of sheet music collections and publishers in the Music Division of the Library of Congress. The majority of the compositions chosen by the American Choral Directors Association are from the A. P. Schmidt Company Archives, one of the most valuable resources for the study of American choral music.

This archive of music occupies a special place in the history of American music publishing. In 1958, the publisher Summy-Birchard bought out the Arthur P. Schmidt Company, and both principals agreed to donate the Schmidt papers to the Library of Congress. Included in the large deposit of business papers and financial records were numerous containers of music manuscripts, including many holographs, and printed sheet music.

The A. P. Schmidt Company Archives contains over 300 boxes of manuscripts and published choral music, including the music of Arthur Foote, George Whitefield Chadwick, Horatio Parker, and John Knowles Paine.

Because Schmidt championed the music of women, the collection is also rich in the holdings of holographs and sheet music of Amy Beach, Mabel Wheeler Daniels, Margaret Ruthven Lang, Florence Newell Barbour, Marion Bauer, Helen Hopekirk, Gena Branscomb, and Anna Pricella Rischer.

View a finding aid for the A. P. Schmidt collection

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